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Publications dans les journaux scientifiques dans le domaine de l'ingénierie : 04-2018 trié par par titre, page: 0
» "Swarm electrification" powers villages [Resources_Startups]
Résumé:
Bangladesh hosts the world’s largest collection of off-grid solar energy systems. Rooftop panels and batteries electrify over 4 million households and businesses there. The Dhakabased startup ME SOLshare believes it has the technology to link these systems and foster a solar energy-sharing economy. If the company succeeds, home systems will morph into village minigrids, offering wider access to more power at lower cost.
Auteurs: Peter Fairley;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 55, issue:4, pages: 21 - 21
Editeur: IEEE
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» $320 times 240$ Back-Illuminated 10- $mu text{m}$ CAPD Pixels for High-Speed Modulation Time-of-Flight CMOS Image Sensor
Résumé:
A $320times 240$ back-illuminated (BI) time-of-flight CMOS image sensor with 10- $mu text{m}$ current-assisted photonic demodulator (CAPD) pixels has been developed. The BI pixel structure maximizes fill factor, allows for flexible transistor positioning, and makes the light path independent of the metal layers. The BI-CAPD pixel, which has relatively thinner substrate than that of front-illuminated CAPD, makes it possible to generate steeper electric-potential gradient in the vertical direction of the substrate, and results in 80% modulation contrast at 100-MHz modulation frequency. A higher modulation contrast contributes to suppress system power consumption as the sensor integration time for reaching specific signal-to-noise ratio is reduced. Alternatively, it contributes to improve depth accuracy when integration time is fixed.
Auteurs: Yuichi Kato;Takuya Sano;Yusuke Moriyama;Shunji Maeda;Takeshi Yamazaki;Atsushi Nose;Kimiyasu Shiina;Yohtaro Yasu;Ward van der Tempel;Alper Ercan;Yoshiki Ebiko;Daniel Van Nieuwenhove;Shunichi Sukegawa;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1071 - 1078
Editeur: IEEE
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» ${L}_{{g}} = {30}$ nm InAs Channel MOSFETs Exhibiting ${f}_{textit {max}} ={410}$ GHz and ${f}_{{t}} = {357}$ GHz
Résumé:
We report ${L}_{g}= 30$ nm InAs-channel MOSFETs exhibiting 420 GHz ${f}_{textit {max}}$ , record for a III-V MOSFET, and 357 GHz ${f}_{t}$ . The device incorporates a 5-nm strained InAs channel grown on an InP substrate. To reduce the parasitic gate-source and gate-drain capacitances, regrown lateral access regions increase the separations between the gate and the N+ source and drain; modulation doping within these access regions provides a low associated series resistance, enabling high ${g}_{m}$ . The 30 nm ${L}_{g}$ device shows an 1.5 mS/ $mu text{m}$ DC peak extrinsic ${g}_{m}$ at ${V}_{textit {DS}} = 0.5$ V and ${V}_{textit {GS}} = 0.3$ V, 91% of the value (1.65 mS/ $mu text{m}$ ) extracted from 10 MHz RF measurements, indicating a low DC-RF dispersion.
Auteurs: Jun Wu;Yihao Fang;Brian Markman;Hsin-Ying Tseng;Mark J. W. Rodwell;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 39, issue:4, pages: 472 - 475
Editeur: IEEE
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» (In)Decision [MicroBusiness]
Résumé:
Years ago, my wife and I picked out five wallpaper patterns for five rooms in about an hour. We needed to decide on wall coverings so that we could move back into our house as a renovation was being completed. We rounded up our three young children, drove to a wallpaper store, and made our selections. Luckily the store wasn't busy, so we had most of the staff's attention as we worked through what each room needed. Had we had more time, we probably would have made some different choices. But time was limited, the kids were restless, and the decisions we made were more than adequate. That was over 20 years ago, and two rooms still have the same wallpaper. Another one was changed just last year.
Auteurs: Fred Schindler;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 18 - 19
Editeur: IEEE
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» 1.5-D Sparse Array for Millimeter-Wave Imaging Based on Compressive Sensing Techniques
Résumé:
The goal of this paper is to reduce the antenna count in a millimeter (mm)-wave imaging system by proposing both hardware and software solutions. The concept of image sparsity in the transform domain is utilized to present the compressive sensing (CS) formulation for both mono-static and multistatic imaging at mm-wave frequencies. To reduce the complexity of the imaging system and reconstruction process, we introduce 1.5-D array structure, which is a random sparse array with orthogonal element locations. It is shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the reconstructed image obtained by a 1.5-D array with 65% sparsity is very close to the PSNR of a uniform 2-D array for mono-static imaging. Moreover, for multistatic imaging, it is illustrated that a high-quality image is reconstructed with 92% reduction in antenna elements, which significantly reduces the cost, scan time, and system complexity. Furthermore, a 1.5-D array of 16 patch antennas with 60% sparsity, operating from 29 to 32 GHz is designed and implemented to investigate the performance of the proposed 1.5-D array for imaging, as well as the presented CS-based reconstruction method. Measurements show that the quality of the reconstructed image using this 1.5-D array with CS-based reconstruction is very close to a full 2-D array; for example, the PSNR achieved for the reconstructed image of a knife is 33 dB referenced to a uniform 2-D array. The proposed reconstruction method results in 6–11 dB improvement in PSNR compared with the conventional reconstruction methods with a reasonable increase in computing load.
Auteurs: Hojatollah Zamani;Mohammad Fakharzadeh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2008 - 2015
Editeur: IEEE
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» 10-Gb/s Indoor THz Communications Using Industrial Si Photonics Technology
Résumé:
In this letter, we report the design, fabrication, and measurement of a silicon photonics-based transmitter (Tx) offering both mass production capability and high integration level potentiality. The Tx circuit consists of an integrated photodiode generating a 200-300-GHz signal for photonic upconversion from baseband to millimeter-wave. This Tx achieved output power in the range of −20 to −30 dBm over the 150–300-GHz frequency band is used to demonstrate an indoor 300-GHz wireless link. The receiver is using a commercial Schottky diode to enable direct detection. Amplitude modulation is successfully tested, and real-time bit error rates are shown for up to 10-Gb/s data rates.
Auteurs: E. Lacombe;C. Belem-Goncalves;C. Luxey;F. Gianesello;C. Durand;D. Gloria;G. Ducournau;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 362 - 364
Editeur: IEEE
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» 128 Gbit/s Free-Space Laser Transmission Performance in a Simulated Atmosphere Channel With Adjusted Turbulence
Résumé:
A 128 Gbit/s free-space laser link demonstration has been presented. We use a simulated atmosphere system with a tunable 1 km equivalent weak turbulence channel. Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams were observed. Bit error rate curves of back to back transmission and that in a simulated atmospheric channel are measured. The results show that the receiving sensitivities can be better than –37.3 dBm at the rate of 128 Gbit/s in a turbulence channel. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the transmission performance of high speed space laser in a tunable atmospheric channel is studied.
Auteurs: Xianzhu Liu;Tianshu Wang;Xinmeng Zhang;Junda Chen;Peng Lin;Haifeng Yao;Juntong Zhan;Qiang Fu;Jinhua Yang;Huilin Jiang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2-Correcting Lee Codes: (Quasi)-Perfect Spectral Conditions and Some Constructions
Résumé:
Let $p$ be an odd prime. Recently, Camarero and Martínez (in “Quasi-perfect Lee codes of radius 2 and arbitrarily large dimension”, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 62, no. 3, 2016) constructed some $p$ -ary 2-quasi-perfect Lee codes for $pequiv pm 5 pmod {12}$ . In this paper, some infinite classes of $p$ -ary 2-quasi-perfect Lee codes for any odd prime $p$ with flexible length and dimension are presented. More specifically, we provide a new method for constructing quasi-perfect Lee codes. Our approach uses subsets derived from some quadratic curves over finite fields (in odd characteristic) to obtain two classes of 2-quasi-perfect Lee codes defined in the space $pmb {mathbb {Z}}_{p}^{n}$ for $n=frac {p^{k}+1}{2}$ (with $pequiv 1, -5 pmod {12}$ and $k$ is any integer, or $pequiv -1, 5 pmod {12} $ and $k$ is an even integer) and $n=frac {p^{k}-1}{2}$ (with $pequiv -1, 5 pmod {12}$ , $k$ is an odd i- teger and $p^{k}>12$ ). Our codes encompass the $p$ -ary ( $pequiv pm 5 pmod {12}$ ) 2-quasi-perfect Lee codes constructed by Camarero and Martínez. Furthermore, we prove that the related Cayley graphs are Ramanujan or almost Ramanujan using Kloosterman sums. This generalizes the work of Bibak, Kapron, and Srinivasan (in “The Cayley graphs associated with some quasi-perfect Lee codes are Ramanujan graphs”, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 62, no. 11, 2016) from the case $pequiv 3 pmod {4}$ and $k=1$ to the case of any odd prime $p$ and positive integer $k$ . Finally, we derive some necessary conditions with the exponential sums of all 2-perfect codes and 2-quasi-perfect codes, and present a heuristic algorithm for constructing 2-perfect codes and 2-quasi-perfect codes. Our results show that, in general, the Cayley graphs associated with 2-perfect codes are Ramanujan. From the algorithm, some new 2-quasi-perfect Lee codes different from those constructed from quadratic curves are given. The Lee codes presented in this paper have applications in constrained and partial-response channels, flash memories, and decision diagrams.
Auteurs: Sihem Mesnager;Chunming Tang;Yanfeng Qi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 3031 - 3041
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2.5-D Extended Field-of-View Ultrasound
Résumé:
Recently, the growing emphasis on medical ultrasound (US) has led to a rapid development of US extended field-of-view (EFOV) techniques. US EFOV techniques can be classified into three categories: 2-D US EFOV, 3-D US, and 3-D US EFOV. In this paper, we propose a novel EFOV method called 2.5-D US EFOV that combines both the advantages of the 2-D US EFOV and the 3-D US by generating a panorama on a curved image plane guided by a curved scanning trajectory of the US probe. In 2.5-D US EFOV, the real-time position and orientation of the US image plane can be recorded via an electromagnetic spatial sensor attached to the probe. The scanning direction is not necessarily straight and can be curved according to the regions of interest (ROI). To form the curved panorama, an image cutting method is proposed. Finally, the curved panorama is rendered in a 3-D space using a surface rendering based on a texture mapping technique. This allows 3-D measurements of lines and angles. Phantom experiments demonstrated that 2.5-D US EFOV images could show anatomical structures of ROI accurately and rapidly. The overall average errors for the distance and angle measurements are −0.097 ± 0.128 cm (−1% ± 1.2%) and 1.50° ± 1.60° (1.9% ± 2%), respectively. A typical extended US image can be reconstructed from 321 B-scans images within 3 s. The satisfying quantitative result on the spinal tissues of a scoliosis subject demonstrates that our system has potential applications in the assessment of musculoskeletal issues.
Auteurs: Qinghua Huang;Zhaozheng Zeng;Xuelong Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 37, issue:4, pages: 851 - 859
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 IEEE Radiation and Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves Conference Held in Divnomorskoe, Russia [Meeting Reports]
Résumé:
Presents information on the 2017 IEEE Radiation and Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves Conference.
Auteurs: Victor Obukhovets;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 15 - 16
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 Reviewers
Résumé:
This article lists the people who reviewed submissions to IEEE Software in 2017. The articles in IEEE Software are the result of hard work by many people. We deeply appreciate the efforts of everyone who reviewed the many articles submitted to Software last year. The peer review process helps maintain the magazine’s revered quality. All of us in the software development community owe gratitude to the people who participate in this crucial service.
Auteurs: Dennis Taylor;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 35, issue:2, pages: 8 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2DEG Retraction and Potential Distribution of GaN–on–Si HEMTs Investigated Through a Floating Gate Terminal
Résumé:
We investigate the potential distribution and breakdown of GaN-on-silicon HEMTs by using a test structure with a floating sense node located between gate and drain, in the access region. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the adopted method, we analyze two different wafers, having different 2DEG retraction in the OFF-state and different time to breakdown. We demonstrate that: 1) the floating node can effectively be used to evaluate the potential distribution in the access region; 2-D simulations are compared with the experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and 2) the time to breakdown is strongly influenced by the distribution of the potential (and of the electric field) in the access region. A superior robustness is found on devices characterized by an improved distribution of the 2DEG potential between gate and drain. In contrast, devices with a lesser 2DEG retraction show early breakdown when subjected to OFF-state stress. For the first time, we demonstrate a direct correlation between the 2DEG retraction and the OFF-state long-term stability of GaN-on-Si HEMTs. The results reported within this paper provide further insight on the physical origin of time-dependent breakdown in GaN-based power transistors.
Auteurs: I. Rossetto;M. Meneghini;C. De Santi;S. Pandey;M. Gajda;G. A. M Hurkx;J. Croon;J. Šonský;G. Meneghesso;E. Zanoni;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1303 - 1307
Editeur: IEEE
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» 300-GHz Balanced Varactor Doubler in Silicon CMOS for Ultrahigh-Speed Wireless Communications
Résumé:
This letter presents a 300-GHz varactor doubler suitable for ultrahigh-speed wireless communications. The doubler employs balance configuration to enhance the second harmonic efficiently. The proposed varactor doubler realized in TSMC 40-nm CMOS can be integrated with other CMOS components to generate millimeter-wave signals at 300-GHz frequency band. At the pumping frequency of 150 GHz and input power of 10 dBm, the doubler results in an output power of −4.6 dBm at 300 GHz. The doubler consumes no dc power while it occupies a chip area of $0.53~text {mm}^{2}$ including probe pads.
Auteurs: Tuan Anh Vu;Kyoya Takano;Minoru Fujishima;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 341 - 343
Editeur: IEEE
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» 315-MHz Self-Acceleration Start-Up OOK Super-Regenerative Wireless Receiver
Résumé:
A novel 315-MHz OOK self-quenching super-regenerative wireless receiver is presented in this letter. A self-acceleration start-up mechanism is proposed, which employs a positive feedback to speed up the start-up time of super-regenerative oscillator for the “1” input signals. An adaptive reference generation is proposed to track the strength of input signal dynamically. The presented receiver can alleviate the design difficulties of the demodulation circuit and improve the rejection of interferences effectively. The prototype chip is fabricated with Central Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation 0.5- $mu text{m}$ mixed CMOS process. The chip area is $770,,mu text{m},,times680,,mu text{m}$ and the current consumption is 2.5 mA with 5-V supply voltage. The measurement results show that the sensitivity of the proposed receiver improves 11 dB for 2-kb/s OOK input signal when the self-acceleration start-up is activated.
Auteurs: Jian Xu;Yu Chen;Xi Chen;Zhi-Gong Wang;Jian-Chang Du;Yong-liu Shi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 350 - 352
Editeur: IEEE
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» 3D Genome Reconstruction with ShRec3D+ and Hi-C Data
Résumé:
Hi-C technology, a chromosome conformation capture (3C) based method, has been developed to capture genome-wide interactions at a given resolution. The next challenge is to reconstruct 3D structure of genome from the 3C-derived data computationally. Several existing methods have been proposed to obtain a consensus structure or ensemble structures. These methods can be categorized as probabilistic models or restraint-based models. In this paper, we propose a method, named ShRec3D+, to infer a consensus 3D structure of a genome from Hi-C data. The method is a two-step algorithm which is based on ChromSDE and ShRec3D methods. First, correct the conversion factor by golden section search for converting interaction frequency data to a distance weighted graph. Second, apply shortest-path algorithm and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) algorithm to compute the 3D coordinates of a set of genomic loci from the distance graph. We validate ShRec3D+ accuracy on both simulation data and publicly Hi-C data. Our test results indicate that our method successfully corrects the parameter with a given resolution, is more accurate than ShRec3D, and is more efficient and robust than ChromSDE.
Auteurs: Jiangeng Li;Wei Zhang;Xiaodan Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 460 - 468
Editeur: IEEE
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» 3D Gerchberg-Saxton Optical Correlation
Résumé:
Since Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm was developed, it has been applied in various fields, e.g., optical display and optical tweezers. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) Gerchberg-Saxton optical correlation is proposed. A 2D image is divided into particle-like points placed in 3D space, which are simultaneously encoded into the cascaded phase masks by using a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. The extracted phase masks can be flexibly compressed, and the decoded images can be verified via optical correlation. It is also illustrated that high security and high flexibility can be achieved by using the proposed 3D Gerchberg-Saxton correlation method. The proposed 3D Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm can provide a new and significant insight on optical correlation.
Auteurs: Wen Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» 45 Gb/s Direct Modulation of Two-Section InP-on-Si DFB Laser Diodes
Résumé:
Two-section heterogeneously integrated InP-on-Si DFB laser diodes are demonstrated. In the modulation response, the relaxation oscillation frequency of 10 GHz is followed by a second resonance to achieve nearly 25-GHz 3-dB modulation bandwidth and 45-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-ON–OFF keying transmission.
Auteurs: M. Shahin;K. Ma;A. Abbasi;G. Roelkens;G. Morthier;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 30, issue:8, pages: 685 - 687
Editeur: IEEE
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» 50 Years of the Golomb–Welch Conjecture
Résumé:
Since 1968, when the Golomb–Welch conjecture was raised, it has become the main motive power behind the progress in the area of the perfect Lee codes. Although, there is a vast literature on the topic and it is widely believed to be true, this conjecture is far from being solved. In this paper, we provide a survey of papers on the Golomb–Welch conjecture. Furthermore, new results on Golomb–Welch conjecture dealing with perfect Lee codes of large radii are presented. Algebraic ways of tackling the conjecture in the future are discussed as well. Finally, a brief survey of research inspired by the conjecture is given.
Auteurs: Peter Horak;Dongryul Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 3048 - 3061
Editeur: IEEE
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» 500 °C, High Current Linear Voltage Regulator in 4H-SiC BJT Technology
Résumé:
This letter reports on a fully integrated 2- ${A}$ linear voltage regulator operational in a wide temperature range from 25 °C up to 500 °C fabricated in 4H-SiC technology. The circuit provides a stable output voltage with less than 1% variation in the entire temperature range. This letter demonstrates the first power supply solution providing both high-temperature (up to 500 °C) and high-load driving capabilities (up to 2 ${A}$ ).
Auteurs: Saleh Kargarrazi;Hossein Elahipanah;Saul Rodriguez;Carl-Mikael Zetterling;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 39, issue:4, pages: 548 - 551
Editeur: IEEE
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» 5G for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications
Résumé:
Auteurs: David Soldani;Y. Jay Guo;Bernard Barani;Preben Mogensen;Chih-Lin I;Sajal K. Das;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 6 - 7
Editeur: IEEE
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» 5G Radio Network Design for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication
Résumé:
5G is currently being standardized and addresses, among other things, new URLLC services. These are characterized by the need to support reliable communication, where successful data transmission can be guaranteed within low latency bounds, like 1 ms, at a low failure rate. This article describes the functionality of both the NR and LTE radio interfaces to provide URLLC services. Achievable latency bounds are evaluated, and the expected spectral efficiency is demonstrated. It is shown that both NR and LTE can fulfill the ITU 5G requirements on URLLC; however, this comes at the cost of reduced spectral efficiency compared to mobile broadband services without latency or reliability constraints. Still, the impact on the overall network performance is expected to be moderate.
Auteurs: Joachim Sachs;Gustav Wikstrom;Torsten Dudda;Robert Baldemair;Kittipong Kittichokechai;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 24 - 31
Editeur: IEEE
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» MeLoDy: A Long-Term Dynamic Quality-Aware Incentive Mechanism for Crowdsourcing
Résumé:
Crowdsourcing allows requesters to allocate tasks to a group of workers on the Internet to make use of their collective intelligence. Quality control is a key design objective in incentive mechanisms for crowdsourcing as requesters aim at obtaining high-quality answers under a limited budget. However, when measuring workers’ long-term quality, existing mechanisms either fail to utilize workers’ historical information, or treat workers’ quality as stable and ignore its temporal characteristics, hence performing poorly in a long run. In this paper we propose MeLoDy, a long-term dynamic quality-aware incentive mechanism for crowdsourcing. MeLoDy models interaction between requesters and workers as reverse auctions that run continuously. In each run of MeLoDy, we design a truthful, individual rational, budget feasible and quality-aware algorithm for task allocation with polynomial-time computation complexity and $O(1)$ performance ratio. Moreover, taking into consideration the long-term characteristics of workers’ quality, we propose a novel framework in MeLoDy for quality inference and parameters learning based on Linear Dynamical Systems at the end of each run, which takes full advantage of workers’ historical information and predicts their quality accurately. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that MeLoDy outperforms existing work in terms of both quality estimation (reducing estimation error by $17.6% sim 24.2%$ ) and social performance (increasing requester's utility by $18.2% sim 46.6%$) in long-term scenarios.
Auteurs: Hongwei Wang;Song Guo;Jiannong Cao;Minyi Guo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 29, issue:4, pages: 901 - 914
Editeur: IEEE
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» A $64.8~mu$ W > 2.2 G $Omega$ DC–AC Configurable CMOS Front-End IC for Wearable ECG Monitoring
Résumé:
This paper presents a low-power and high input impedance dc–ac configurable CMOS front-end integrated circuit (IC) for wearable ECG monitoring. This IC mainly includes three parts, namely: 1) high input impedance dc-coupled instrumentation amplifier; 2) AC-coupled programmable gain amplifier; and 3) low-power single operational amplifier continuous-time $Sigma Delta $ modulator. In addition, on-chip power management and clock generator were implemented to minimize the device size of the ECG monitoring system. This IC can be configured to dc-coupled topology to achieve ultra-high input impedance for dry electrode, and ac-coupled topology to achieve better electrode dc offset suppression for wet electrode. A baseline wander tracking technique is proposed to eliminate baseline disturbance, and a right-leg-driven circuit is realized to enhance the common-mode rejection ratio and minimize the 50/60 Hz power line interference. Fabricated in 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process, this front-end IC occupies 0.24 mm2 active area and consumes 64.8 $mu text{W}$ from a 1.8-V supply. It achieves peak SNR 54.7 dB, spurious free dynamic range 58.2 dB, input impedance higher than 2.2 $text{G}Omega $ , and dc suppression as large as ±300 mV.
Auteurs: Wenbin Bai;Zhangming Zhu;Yani Li;Lianxi Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 18, issue:8, pages: 3400 - 3409
Editeur: IEEE
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» A −8 mV/+15 mV Double Polarity Piezoelectric Transformer-Based Step-Up Oscillator for Energy Harvesting Applications
Résumé:
This paper presents two circuit topologies of battery-less integrated boost oscillators suitable for kick-starting electronic systems in fully discharged states with ultra-low input voltages, in the context of energy harvesting applications based on thermoelectric generators, by coupling a piezoelectric transformer in a feedback loop. With respect to the prior work, the first presented solution is a double polarity circuit designed in a $0.18~mu text{m}$ CMOS technology able to boost ultra-low positive and negative voltages without using switching matrixes. The circuit exploits a CMOS inverter made up of low threshold transistors, and also includes a hysteretic voltage monitor consuming only ~15 nW to enable an external circuit. The minimum achieved positive and negative oscillation voltages are +15 and −8 mV, which to the best of the authors’ knowledge, are among the lowest start-up voltages achieved in literature up to now without using magnetic components. Moreover, the input impedance in the range of several $text{k}Omega $ makes the presented solution suitable also for high impedances sources, such as rectennas. The second presented circuit, designed in a $0.32~mu text{m}$ CMOS technology, exploits an input stage based on depletion-mode MOSFETs in a common source stage configuration and achieves a maximum step ratio of ~60.
Auteurs: Antonio Camarda;Marco Tartagni;Aldo Romani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1454 - 1467
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 1.2–12 GHz Sliced Notch Antenna Array
Résumé:
Historically, Vivaldi arrays are known to suffer from high cross-polarization when scanning in the nonprincipal planes—a fault without a universal solution. In this paper, a solution to this issue is proposed in the form of a new Vivaldi-type array with low cross-polarization termed the Sliced Notch Antenna (SNA) array. For the first proof-of-concept demonstration, simulations and measurements are comparatively presented for two single-polarized $19 times 19$ arrays—the proposed SNA and its Vivaldi counterpart—each operating over a 1.2–12 GHz (10:1) band. Both arrays are built using typical vertically integrated printed-circuit board cards, and are designed to exhibit VSWR < 2.5 within a 60° scan cone over most of the 10:1 band as infinite arrays. Measurement results compare very favorably with full-wave finite array simulations that include array truncation effects. The SNA array element demonstrates well-behaved polarization performance versus frequency, with more than 20 dB of D-plane $theta !=!45 {^{circ }}$ polarization purity improvement at the high frequency. Moreover, the SNA element also: 1) offers better suppression of classical Vivaldi E-plane scan blindnesses; 2) requires fewer plated through vias for stripline-based designs; and 3) allows relaxed adjacent element electrical contact requirements for dual-polarized arrangements.
Auteurs: John T. Logan;Rick W. Kindt;Marinos N. Vouvakis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1818 - 1826
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 10.1” 183- $mu text{W}$ /electrode, 0.73-mm2/sensor High-SNR 3-D Hover Sensor Based on Enhanced Signal Refining and Fine Error Calibrating Techniques
Résumé:
A high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) inductor-free 3-D hover sensor is presented. This paper solved the low-signal component issue, which is the biggest problem in 3-D hover sensing. For this purpose, we propose a power- and cost-effective high-voltage driving technique in the self-capacitance sensing scheme (SCSS) and lateral resolution optimization of a touch panel. In addition, the huge panel offsets in the SCSS from both vertical panel capacitance (CSV) and horizontal panel capacitance (CSH) can effectively be eliminated by exploiting the panel’s natural characteristics, without using other costly resources. Therefore, in the proposed design, the total calibration block is minimized only for parasitic capacitance mismatches. Last, by adopting new driving scheme, two-phase simultaneous sensing is enabled to increase the SNR further. The proposed hover sensing system achieved a 39-dB SNR at a 1-cm hover point under a 240-Hz scan rate condition in noise experiments, while consuming 183 $mu text{W}$ /electrode and 0.73 mm2/sensor, which are the lowest power per electrode performance and the smallest die-area per sensor performance, respectively, in comparison to the state-of-the-art 3-D hover systems.
Auteurs: Yeunhee Huh;Sung-Wan Hong;Sang-Hui Park;Changsik Shin;Jun-Suk Bang;Changbyung Park;Sungsoo Park;Gyu-Hyeong Cho;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1079 - 1088
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 128 kb 7T SRAM Using a Single-Cycle Boosting Mechanism in 28-nm FD–SOI
Résumé:
A 128-kb ultra-low voltage SRAM, based on a leakage optimized single-WELL 7T bitcell in 28-nm FD–SOI technology is presented. An ideal power management scenario in a single supply system is achieved by permanently keeping the storage elements in the vicinity of the retention voltage. Performance and reliability is regained by boosting the voltage on critical nodes. The cost of voltage boost generation unit is minimized by 66 low-power and area efficient ON-chip charge pumps, i.e., 64 for boosting the voltages on write-bitlines and two for the wordlines. The charge pump energy overhead is reduced by introducing a new boost paradigm with an on-demand activation mechanism that generates the required boost level in a single clock cycle. A sense amplifier-less read architecture enables a reliable and high performance read operation. Measurements identify several meritorious metrics. The minimum read energy is identified as 8.4fJ/bit-access, achieved for 90-MHz operation at 0.3V. Furthermore, the minimum operating voltage is measured as 240mV, and data is retained in ultra-low voltage regime, ranging down to 0.2V. The bitcell area, implemented using standard design rules, is 0.261 $mu text{m}^{2}$ . The entire memory, including the digital test circuitry, occupies 0.161mm2 of chip area.
Auteurs: Babak Mohammadi;Oskar Andersson;Joseph Nguyen;Lorenzo Ciampolini;Andreia Cathelin;Joachim Neves Rodrigues;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1257 - 1268
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 16-bit 16-MS/s SAR ADC With On-Chip Calibration in 55-nm CMOS
Résumé:
This paper presents a successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that is much smaller and faster than other recently reported precision (16-bit and beyond) SAR ADCs. In addition, it features low input capacitance and an efficient on-chip foreground calibration algorithm to fix bit weight errors. Several other enabling techniques are also used, including signal independent reference using reservoir capacitors to improve speed and reduce area, plus LSB repeats and statistical residue measurement to improve efficiency. The prototype achieves 97.5-dB spurious-free dynamic range at 100-kHz input while operating at 16 MS/s and consumes 16.3 mW. It was fabricated in a 55-nm CMOS process and occupies 0.55 mm2.
Auteurs: Junhua Shen;Akira Shikata;Lalinda D. Fernando;Ned Guthrie;Baozhen Chen;Mark Maddox;Nikhil Mascarenhas;Ron Kapusta;Michael C. W. Coln;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1149 - 1160
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 2-GS/s 8-bit Non-Interleaved Time-Domain Flash ADC Based on Remainder Number System in 65-nm CMOS
Résumé:
A non-interleaved 2-GS/s, 8-bit flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC) utilizing the remainder number system (RNS) quantization principle is presented. The RNS quantization reduces the number of comparators and thus improves the figure of merit of the flash ADC. A time-domain implementation is adopted to reduce the ADC input capacitance with a voltage-to-time converter (VTC) front end. The ring oscillator-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) also provides a linear and efficient modulo (folding) operation for the RNS quantization with built-in dynamic element matching. Offline TDC mismatch calibration based on a histogram (code density) test is also employed to further improve the ADC linearity. The prototype RNS ADC was fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process with an active area of 0.08 mm2. It measures an SNDR of 40.7 dB for a Nyquist input and an effective resolution bandwidth of 1.74 GHz.
Auteurs: Shuang Zhu;Bo Wu;Yongda Cai;Yun Chiu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1172 - 1183
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 3-D-Silicon Nanowire FET Biosensor Based on a Novel Hybrid Process
Résumé:
Single-silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) devices are powerful tools for the detection and quantification of biochemical molecules. However, traditional SiNW-FET-based biosensors demonstrate low output signals and high fluctuation noises, which results from the tiny scale of a single channel and electrical property deterioration caused by the dry etching process. To improve the performance of the SiNW-FET biosensors, here we developed a 3-D-SiNW-FET by using a hybrid process of deep reactive ion etching and isotropic wet etching with HF, HNO3 and HAc (HNA) mixed solution. The 3-D-SiNW-FET that included $5times7$ nanowire channels with a wire diameter of approximately 300 nm was successfully fabricated with the novel hybrid process. Compared with the performance of single-and 2-D-SiNW-FETs, the 3-D-SiNW-FET showed a fairly good ability to stabilize and enhance the source-drain current by parallelizing the signals of the multiple channels. With the fabricated 3-D-SiNW-FET, immunoglobulin G was detected at a concentration as low as 5 fM. [2017-0102]
Auteurs: Xiaofeng Gong;Rui Zhao;Xiaomei Yu;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 164 - 170
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 3.2 ppm/°C Second-Order Temperature Compensated CMOS On-Chip Oscillator Using Voltage Ratio Adjusting Technique
Résumé:
A CMOS on-chip oscillator for the local interconnection network bus is presented. The temperature dependence of the output frequency is compensated by the voltage ratio adjusting technique. The frequency variation with supply voltage is reduced by a voltage regulator with a wide input range of 1.8–5 V. The frequency shift caused by package stress is minimized by resistor placement. Over a temperature range of −40 °C to 150 °C, the measured temperature coefficients of the output frequency are 3.2 ppm/°C without the effect of the package stress and 14.2 ppm/°C with the effect of the package stress, respectively. The measured frequency variation with supply voltage is within ±0.015%.
Auteurs: Guoqiang Zhang;Kosuke Yayama;Akio Katsushima;Takahiro Miki;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1184 - 1191
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 32 Gb/s, 201 mW, MZM/EAM Cascode Push–Pull CML Driver in 65 nm CMOS
Résumé:
This brief presents a 32 Gb/s driver for a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) and an electro-absorption modulator (EAM). A push–pull current-mode logic driver is chosen to achieve a better power efficiency and a large voltage swing. A double cascode with thin oxide transistors is employed to mitigate the over-voltage stress associated with a large output voltage swing. At the same time, shunt-peaking inductors are incorporated in a compact way to extend the bandwidth and to have a flat group delay. The proposed driver has been fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology with an active area of 0.086 mm2. The electrical measurement result shows that the driver exhibits a differential output swing of 4 ${text V}_{text {pp}}$ at 10 Gb/s. The measured extinction ratios of the driver using the MZM and EAM are 4.53 dB and 4.17 dB, respectively, at 32 Gb/s. The power consumption is 201 mW at 32 Gb/s, which corresponds to an energy efficiency of 6.28 mW/Gb/s.
Auteurs: Jeongho Hwang;Gyu-Seob Jeong;Woorham Bae;Jun-Eun Park;Chang Soo Yoon;Jung Min Yoon;Jiho Joo;Gyungock Kim;Deog-Kyoon Jeong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 436 - 440
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 32 Gb/s, 4.7 pJ/bit Optical Link With −11.7 dBm Sensitivity in 14-nm FinFET CMOS
Résumé:
This paper presents a 32 Gb/s non-return-to-zero optical link using 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser-based multi-mode optics with 14-nm bulk FinFET CMOS circuits. The target application is the integration of optics on to the first-level package, connecting high-speed optical I/O directly to an advanced CMOS host chip (e.g., processor and switch) to increase package I/O bandwidth density and lower overall system power and cost. The optical link is designed for maximum link margin to tolerate high optical losses created by low-cost optical packaging. The transmitter (TX) uses a three-tap, 1/2-unit-interval-spaced feed-forward equalizer to improve eye opening. The receiver (RX) uses a low-bandwidth, low-noise transimpedance amplifier and a speculative one-tap decision-feedback equalizer for high sensitivity. The TX and RX power efficiencies are 3.3 and 1.4 pJ/bit, respectively. The TX optical modulation amplitude (OMA) is 1.2 dBm, and the RX sensitivity is −11.7 dBm OMA at a bit error rate of 10−12 with PRBS31 data, providing 12.9-dB link margin.
Auteurs: Jonathan E. Proesel;Zeynep Toprak-Deniz;Alessandro Cevrero;Ilter Ozkaya;Seongwon Kim;Daniel M. Kuchta;Sungjae Lee;Sergey V. Rylov;Herschel Ainspan;Timothy O. Dickson;John F. Bulzacchelli;Mounir Meghelli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1214 - 1226
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 3D Photonic-Electronic Integrated Transponder Aggregator With $48times 16$ Heater Control Cells
Résumé:
An electronic integrated circuit (EIC) and a silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC) are 3D-integrated. The EIC using the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) part of STMicroelectronics’ BCD8sp $0.16~mu text{m}$ technology controls all 768 switches in the PIC individually and monitors them with 84 transimpedance amplifiers. A scalable analog–digital approach with a cell size of $100times 100,,mu text {m}^{2}$ for thermal control of optical ring resonator switch matrices is introduced. An electrical power consumption of 220 mW for all electronic control circuits of the optical switch matrix is resulting in 5.5% of the power needed by a constant-voltage control approach.
Auteurs: Nikola Zečević;Michael Hofbauer;Bernhard Goll;Horst Zimmermann;Stefano Tondini;Astghik Chalyan;Giorgio Fontana;Lorenzo Pavesi;Francesco Testa;Stefano Stracca;Alberto Bianchi;Costanza Manganelli;Philippe Velha;Paolo Pintus;Claudio Oton;C
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 30, issue:8, pages: 681 - 684
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 4 + 2T SRAM for Searching and In-Memory Computing With 0.3-V $V_{mathrm {DDmin}}$
Résumé:
This paper presents a 4+2T SRAM for embedded searching and in-memory-computing applications. The proposed SRAM cell uses the n-well as the write wordline to perform write operations and eliminate the write access transistors, achieving 15% area saving compared with conventional 8T SRAM. The decoupled differential read paths significantly improve read noise margin, and therefore reliable multi-word activation can be enabled to perform in-memory Boolean logic functions. Reconfigurable differential sense amplifiers are employed to realize fast normal read or multi-functional logic operations. Moreover, the proposed 4 + 2T SRAM can be reconfigured as binary content-addressable memory (BCAM) or ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) for searching operations, achieving 0.13 fJ/search/bit at 0.35 V. The chip is fabricated in 55-nm deeply depleted channel technology. The area efficiency is 65% for a $128 times 128$ pushed-rule array including all peripherals such as column-wise sense amplifier for read/logic and row-wise sense amplifier for BCAM/TCAM operations. Forty dies across five wafers in different corners are measured, showing a worst-case read/write $V_{mathrm {DDmin}}$ of 0.3 V.
Auteurs: Qing Dong;Supreet Jeloka;Mehdi Saligane;Yejoong Kim;Masaru Kawaminami;Akihiko Harada;Satoru Miyoshi;Makoto Yasuda;David Blaauw;Dennis Sylvester;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1006 - 1015
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 4-Transistor nMOS-Only Logic-Compatible Gain-Cell Embedded DRAM With Over 1.6-ms Retention Time at 700 mV in 28-nm FD-SOI
Résumé:
Gain-cell embedded DRAM (GC-eDRAM) is a possible alternative to traditional static random access memories (SRAM). While GC-eDRAM provides high-density, low-leakage, low-voltage, and inherent2-ported operation, its limited retention time requires periodic, power-hungry refresh cycles. This drawback is further aggravated at scaled technologies, where increased subthreshold leakage currents and decreased in-cell storage capacitances result in faster data integrity deterioration. Therefore, integration of GC-eDRAM within modern systems is often considered to be limited to mature process technologies, where these phenomena are less detrimental. In this paper, we present for the first time a fully functional GC-eDRAM array, implemented and fabricated in a 28-nm process node. The 8-kb array is based on a novel, 2-ported, 4-transistor NMOS-only bitcell with internal feedback to provide efficient operation in the target 28-nm FD-SOI technology. The fabricated memory macro achieves more than 1.6-ms data retention time at 27 °C, which is $30times $ longer than conventional gain-cell topologies when applied to this technology. The described 4-transistor dual-port nMOS array utilizes over 70% of the total memory macro area, while retaining almost 30% lower cell area than a single-ported 6T SRAM in the same technology.
Auteurs: Robert Giterman;Alexander Fish;Andreas Burg;Adam Teman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1245 - 1256
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 4.2-mW 10-MHz BW 74.4-dB SNDR Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator With SAR-Assisted Digital-Domain Noise Coupling
Résumé:
This paper introduces a high-order continuous-time (CT) delta-sigma modulator (DSM) that applies digital-domain noise coupling (DNC) based on the structural advantages of the successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which makes the implementation of second-order noise coupling very simple. Due to digital-domain implementation as well as the SAR ADC where the key building blocks are embedded for the proposed DNC, compact size and efficient power consumption could be designed. For low circuit noise, a feedback DAC is implemented with a tri-level current-steering DAC. Tri-level data-weight averaging (TDWA) improves the linearity of the DAC. With the proposed DNC and TDWA, a prototype CT DSM fabricated in a 28-nm CMOS achieves a peak 74.4-dB SNDR and an 80.8-dB dynamic range (DR) for a 10-MHz BW with an oversampling ratio of 16, resulting in a Schreier FoMDR of 174.5 dB. The chip area occupies 0.1 mm2, and the power consumption is 4.2 mW.
Auteurs: Il-Hoon Jang;Min-Jae Seo;Sang-Hyun Cho;Jae-Keun Lee;Seung-Yeob Baek;Sunwoo Kwon;Michael Choi;Hyung-Jong Ko;Seung-Tak Ryu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1139 - 1148
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 5-Bit 500-MS/s Asynchronous Digital Slope ADC With Two Comparators
Résumé:
In this brief, we design a single-channel 5-bit 500-MS/s asynchronous digital slope analog-to-digital converter. It is implemented and simulated in SMIC 55-nm CMOS technology. The power supply is 1.2 V and the improved delay cells are used, which can shorten the delay time to 50 ps. In addition, a self-disabled continuous-time comparator is used to save power. A strong-arm comparator is used to resolve the most significant bit, so that we can reduce the number of delay cells and increase the sampling speed. The simulation result achieved a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of 25.81 dB.
Auteurs: Yujun Shu;Fengyi Mei;Youling Yu;Jiangfeng Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 426 - 430
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 51.6 Mb/s Experimental VLC System Using a Monochromic Organic LED
Résumé:
An organic light emitting diode (OLED) shows characteristics different from a traditional semiconductor LED when both are applied to visible light communication (VLC). This paper first experimentally characterizes its static and dynamic communication properties with varying input signals. This band-limited and power-limited light source leads to unique communication channel and noise models. Accordingly, the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing in conjunction with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-OQAM) is applied, and its performance is compared against the traditional dc-biased optical OFDM. To further enhance the communication performance, a bit and power loading algorithm and a proper equalization algorithm are jointly implemented to combat the channel frequency selectivity and increase the data rate. A bit-rate of 51.6 Mb/s based on a monochromic OLED is experimentally achieved through the proposed design. The rate is comparable to the multicolor OLEDs-based VLC link in the literature.
Auteurs: Hanjie Chen;Zhengyuan Xu;Qian Gao;Shangbin Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 1 - 12
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 60-Gb/s 1.9-pJ/bit NRZ Optical Receiver With Low-Latency Digital CDR in 14-nm CMOS FinFET
Résumé:
This paper presents an analysis on the loop dynamics of the digital clock and data recovery (CDR) circuits and the design details of a non-return to zero optical receiver (RX) in a 14-nm bulk CMOS finFET technology with high jitter tolerance (JTOL) performance, which is designed based on the analysis. The digital CDR logic is designed full custom in order to keep it running at a quarter rate clock of 15 GHz at 60-Gb/s sampling speed to minimize the CDR loop latency. The RX is characterized in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser-based link recovering a 7-bit pseudo-random bit sequence bit pattern at 60 Gb/s with a JTOL corner frequency of around 80 MHz while maintaining an energy efficiency of 1.9 pJ/bit.
Auteurs: Ilter Ozkaya;Alessandro Cevrero;Pier Andrea Francese;Christian Menolfi;Thomas Morf;Matthias Brändli;Daniel M. Kuchta;Lukas Kull;Christian W. Baks;Jonathan E. Proesel;Marcel Kossel;Danny Luu;Benjamin G. Lee;Fuad E. Doany;Mounir Meghelli;Yusuf L
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1227 - 1237
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 65-nm 10-Gb/s 10-mm On-Chip Serial Link Featuring a Digital-Intensive Time-Based Decision Feedback Equalizer
Résumé:
A digital-intensive on-chip serial link achieving a 10 Gb/s data rate over a 10-mm interconnect was demonstrated in a 65-nm GP process. A three-tap half-rate feed-forward equalizer was implemented for signal pre-emphasis in the transmitted block. On the receiver (RX) side, a two-tap half-rate time-based decision feedback equalizer was employed to cancel out inter-symbol interference noise. A 215 – 1 pseudorandom binary sequence generator and an in situ bit error rate (BER) monitor were designed for bit stream generation and convenient eye-diagram measurements. The measured energy efficiency of the transmitter and RX was 31.9 and 45.3 fJ/b/mm, respectively, for a data rate of 10 Gb/s. A BER less than 10−12 was verified for an eye width of 0.43 unit interval.
Auteurs: Po-Wei Chiu;Somnath Kundu;Qianying Tang;Chris H. Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1203 - 1213
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 65-nm CMOS $I/Q$ RF Power DAC With 24- to 42-dB Third-Harmonic Cancellation and Up to 18-dB Mixed-Signal Filtering
Résumé:
A 700-MHz to 1.6-GHz RF power digital-to-analog converter with programmable integrated harmonic cancellation and mixed-signal filtering is presented. Harmonic cancellation is implemented by splitting the power amplifier (PA) into segments, driving different segments of the PA with phase-shifted versions of the local oscillator (LO) signals, and summing at the output. Mixed-signal filtering is realized in a similar fashion but with segments driven with delayed versions of the input data. The phase shift and data delays are reconfigurable and implemented to operate across a wide frequency range. To boost efficiency, 25% duty cycle LO signals are used. A technique to correct for IQ constellation distortion induced by these 25% duty cycle LO signals is introduced and verified in measurements. The transmitter (TX) operates at a maximum sample rate of 500 MSa/s and achieves an output power of 25.6 dBm for an output load of 100 $Omega $ when harmonic cancellation is enabled. The TX demonstrates 24–42 dB of 3rd harmonic cancellation for continuous wave signals across a 700-MHz to 2-GHz frequency range, achieving an HD3 as low as −57 dB. The TX achieves an HD3 reduction of 33 dB and an 18-dB notch at 40-MHz offset with 20-MHz long-term evolution data.
Auteurs: Bonjern Yang;Eric Y. Chang;Ali M. Niknejad;Borivoje Nikolić;Elad Alon;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1127 - 1138
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 69-dB SNDR 300-MS/s Two-Time Interleaved Pipelined SAR ADC in 16-nm CMOS FinFET With Capacitive Reference Stabilization
Résumé:
A two-time interleaved pipelined SAR ADC in 16-nm CMOS achieving 11.2-bit ENOB at 300 MS/s is presented. To cancel the signal-dependent voltage ripple on the reference node due to DAC switching, it employs a stabilization scheme based on the use of auxiliary DACs. The charge drawn from the reference becomes signal-independent, greatly reducing the requirements for the reference decoupling capacitance and/or buffers. The technique improves the linearity to levels better than 76-dB harmonic distortion. Power consumption is only 3.6 mW resulting in peak FoMs of 175.5 dB and 5.1 fJ/conv.step.
Auteurs: Ewout Martens;Benjamin Hershberg;Jan Craninckx;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1161 - 1171
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 9.52 dB NCG FEC Scheme and 162 b/Cycle Low-Complexity Product Decoder Architecture
Résumé:
Powerful forward error correction (FEC) schemes are used in optical communications to achieve bit-error rates (BERs) below $10^{-15}$ . These FECs follow one of two approaches: the concatenation of simpler hard-decision codes or the usage of inherently powerful soft-decision codes. The first approach yields lower net coding gains (NCGs), but can usually work at higher code rates and have lower complexity decoders. In this paper, we propose a novel FEC scheme based on a product code and a post-processing technique. It can achieve an NCG of 9.52 dB at a BER of $10^{-15}$ and 9.96 dB at a BER of $10^{-18}$ , an error-correction performance that sits between that of current hard-decision and soft-decision FECs. A decoder architecture is designed, tested on field programmable gate array and synthesized in 65-nm CMOS technology: its 162 b/cycle worst-case information throughput can reach 100 Gb/s at the achieved frequency of 616 MHz. Its complexity is shown to be lower than that of hard-decision decoders in literature, and an order of magnitude lower than the estimated complexity of soft-decision decoders.
Auteurs: Carlo Condo;Pascal Giard;François Leduc-Primeau;Gabi Sarkis;Warren J. Gross;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1420 - 1431
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Beam Selection Algorithm for Millimeter-Wave Multi-User MIMO Systems
Résumé:
Millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies offer huge transmission bandwidths and allow packing a large number of antennas within a given aperture area, enabling high-dimensional MIMO communications. A major bottleneck in realizing such systems is the requirement of a large number of RF chains. Working in the beamspace domain provides an attractive solution through beam selection. We propose a novel beam selection algorithm for downlink mmWave multi-user MIMO systems that selects $K$ beams for $K$ users. The proposed method attempts to maximize the sum-rate and nulls-out the multi-user interference. We show, through simulations, that the proposed method outperforms the existing ones.
Auteurs: Rahul Pal;K. V. Srinivas;A. Krishna Chaitanya;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 22, issue:4, pages: 852 - 855
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Beamforming Approach for Multiport Antennas [Antenna Applications Corner]
Résumé:
This article presents an approach for the systematic construction of a unitary multibeam transformation for a general multiport antenna. The resulting beamforming transformation produces up to N beams for an antenna with N terminal pairs. The beams are formed sequentially, each with maximum realized gain for the available degrees of freedom (DFs). The construction may be used for sidelobe control by sequentially placing nulls in the pattern, with each null requiring minimal additional incident power. The procedure provides insight into the effects of null placement on array efficiency and gain pattern. The average element pattern is invariant to unitary transformations of the incident waves, and this fact is used to derive a closed-form expression for the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) function P<sub>MU</sub>(Ω) for the case of two closely separated emitters symmetrically located about the broadside direction of an array of N ideal noninteracting elements with half-wavelength spacing.
Auteurs: Jonathan J. Lynch;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 96 - 104
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Belief-Theoretical Approach to Example-Based Pose Estimation
Résumé:
In example-based human pose estimation, the configuration of an evolving object is sought given visual evidence, having to rely uniquely on a set of sample images. We assume here that, at each time instant of a training session, a number of feature measurements is extracted from the available images, while ground truth is provided in the form of the true object pose. In this scenario, a sensible approach consists in learning maps from features to poses, using the information provided by the training set. In particular, multivalued mappings linking feature values to set of training poses can be constructed. To this purpose we propose a belief modeling regression (BMR) approach in which a probability measure on any individual feature space maps to a convex set of probabilities on the set of training poses, in a form of a belief function. Given a test image, its feature measurements translate into a collection of belief functions on the set of training poses which, when combined, yield there an entire family of probability distributions. From the latter either a single central pose estimate or a set of extremal ones can be computed, together with a measure of how reliable the estimate is. Contrarily to other competing models, in BMR the sparsity of the training samples can be taken into account to model the level of uncertainty associated with these estimates. We illustrate BMR's performance in an application to human pose recovery, showing how it outperforms our implementation of both relevant vector machine and Gaussian process regression. Finally, we discuss motivation and advantages of the proposed approach with respect to its most direct competitors.
Auteurs: Wenjuan Gong;Fabio Cuzzolin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 598 - 611
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Bi-Iterative Model for Electromagnetic Scattering From a PEC Object Partially Buried in Rough Sea Surface
Résumé:
A bi-iterative physical optics (PO) method is presented in this letter to investigate the composite scattering from a perfectly electric conducting object partially buried in the dielectric rough sea surface. In the present method, both the scatterings of a partially buried object and the underlying sea surface are calculated by the PO method. And a bi-iterative strategy is considered, including the mutual interaction among points on the object in direct scattering and the mutual interaction between the object and the sea surface in coupling scattering. In addition, the coupling interaction between the partially buried object and the sea surface contains two parts: 1) the upper surface of the sea surface and the upper part of the object and 2) the lower surface of sea surface and the lower part of the object. In numerical simulations, the bistatic normalized radar cross sections of the composite model are computed by the bi-iterative PO method and are compared with those by the conventional method of moments for different object types and polarizations. The results show that the proposed method has a good accuracy and can greatly reduce the computational time and memory requirement.
Auteurs: Juan Li;Ke Li;Li-Xin Guo;Ze-Lin Ren;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 493 - 497
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Bi-Level Control for Energy Efficiency Improvement of a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle
Résumé:
In this paper, a bi-level control framework is proposed to improve the energy efficiency for a hybrid tracked vehicle. The higher-level discusses how to accurately predict power demand based on the Markov Chain. Specially, fuzzy encoding predictor is used for power demand prediction, and a real-time recursive algorithm is applied to fuse the future power demand information into transition probability matrix (TPM) computation. Furthermore, the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence rate is employed to decide the alteration of control strategy. The lower-level computes the relevant energy management strategy, based on the updated TPM and a model-free reinforcement learning (RL) technique. Simulation results illustrate that the vehicular energy efficiency in the proposed scheme exceeds the common RL control by tuning the KL divergence value. Comparative results also show that the developed control strategy outperforms the common RL one, in terms of energy efficiency and computational speed.
Auteurs: Teng Liu;Xiaosong Hu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 1616 - 1625
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Bounded Complementary Sensitivity Function Ensures Topology-Independent Stability of Homogeneous Dynamical Networks
Résumé:
This paper investigates the topology-independent stability of homogeneous dynamical networks, composed of interconnected equal systems. Precisely, dynamical systems with identical nominal transfer function $F(s)$ are associated with the nodes of a directed graph, whose arcs account for their dynamic interactions, described by a common nominal transfer function $G(s)$. It is shown that topology-independent stability is guaranteed for all possible interconnections with interaction degree (defined as the maximum number of arcs leaving a node) equal at most to $N$ if the $infty$-norm of the complementary sensitivity function $NF(s)G(s)[1+NF(s)G(s)]^{-1}$ is less than 1. This bound is nonconservative in that there exist graphs with interaction degree $N$ that are unstable for an $infty$-norm greater than 1. When nodes and arcs transferences are affected by uncertainties with norm bound $K > 0$ , topology-independent stability is robustly ensured if the $infty$-norm is less than $1/(1+2NK)$ . For symmetric systems, stability is guaranteed for all topologies with interaction degree at most $N$ if the Nyquist plot of $NF(s)G(s)$ does not intersect the real axis to the left of $-1/2$. The proposed results are applied to fluid networks and platoon formation.
Auteurs: Franco Blanchini;Daniele Casagrande;Giulia Giordano;Umberto Viaro;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 1140 - 1146
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Broadband Microwave Noise Generator Using Zener Diodes and a New Technique for Generating White Noise
Résumé:
A microwave noise generator using Zener diodes as the source of noise has been designed and built. It generates almost constant noise power about 20 dB above the noise floor up to 3.2 GHz. The noise generator circuit employs two independent current sources and two identical Zener diodes to generate independent noise powers optimized for lower frequencies (<1.4 GHz) and higher frequencies (>1.4 GHz). When the noise powers are combined on the same resistive load, the result is an almost flat noise power over the measured spectrum.
Auteurs: Serdar Arslan;Bahadır S. Yıldırım;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 329 - 331
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Broadband Wilkinson Power Divider Based on the Segmented Structure
Résumé:
This paper proposes a topology of a broadband Wilkinson power divider based on the segmented structure. The segmented structure is formed by many transmission line segments in shunt with grounded capacitors and series resistor–capacitor networks. Each transmission line segment has the length of a fraction of a quarter of the wavelength (or $lambda $ /4) and the summed length of all segments remains $lambda $ /4. The segmented structure resembles a multiorder matching network and can extend the operation bandwidth through concurrent matching at multiple frequencies. Theoretically, the operation bandwidth can keep increasing with the increased number of segments. Practically, the widest achievable bandwidth is limited by the implementable component values. The theoretical background of the proposed broadband topology is explained. The guideline of designing the proposed power divider is provided. A power divider prototype with the structure of three segments is designed and fabricated. The measurement results, matching the simulations, show the state-of-the-art −20-dB operation bandwidth of 101%, if compared with all the published Wilkinson power dividers having a total length of $lambda $ /4.
Auteurs: Tiku Yu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1902 - 1911
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Cambrian Explosion of DevOps Tools
Résumé:
Specialization, and the resulting tool diversity, is a fundamental aspect of the modern DevOps toolchain. How does this affect the value stream architecture?
Auteurs: Mik Kersten;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 35, issue:2, pages: 14 - 17
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Capacitively Degenerated 100-dB Linear 20–150 MS/s Dynamic Amplifier
Résumé:
This paper presents a new dynamic residue amplifier topology for pipelined analog-to-digital converters. With an input signal of 100 mVpp,diff and 4 $times$ gain, it achieves −100-dB total harmonic distortion, the lowest ever reported for a dynamic amplifier. Compared to the state of the art, it exhibits 25 dB better linearity with twice the output swing and similar noise performance. The key to this performance is a new linearization technique based on capacitive degeneration, which exploits the exponential voltage-to-current relationship of MOSFET in weak inversion. The prototype amplifier is fabricated in a 28-nm CMOS process and dissipates only 87 $mu text{W}$ at a clock speed of 43 MS/s, thereby improving the energy per cycle by 26 $times$ compared with that of state-of-the-art high-linearity amplifiers.
Auteurs: Md Shakil Akter;Kofi A. A. Makinwa;Klaas Bult;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1115 - 1126
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Career in Engineering
Résumé:
During the summers (1951–1954) that I was a graduate student in “pure mathematics,” I worked in the Systems Engineering Section of the Glenn L. Martin Company. I began to notice the applicability of supposedly pure topics like prime number theory and finite field theory to problems in communications. My first major applied effort involved developing the theory of “Shift Register Sequences.” (My book with this title will soon see its third edition, with a third publisher.) Much of my work has been in response to practical questions I was asked, for which I had the necessary mathematical tools. These topics have included comma-free codes, Costas arrays, Tuscan squares, Golomb rulers, zero-sidelobe radar, etc. My shift register work has had the broadest impact: to cell phone signals, the GPS system, error-correcting codes, radar, cryptography, etc. I am fortunate to have lived long enough to get some recognition for my work.
Auteurs: Solomon W. Golomb;Beatrice A. Golomb;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 2805 - 2836
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Change Is Coming for the IAS Publications Page Length [From the Editor's Desk]
Résumé:
Presents information on changes to this publications page length from the editor.
Auteurs: Lanny Floyd;
Apparue dans: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 3 - 6
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Circularly Polarized Octagon-Star-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna With Conical Radiation Pattern
Résumé:
A new circularly polarized (CP) microstrip patch antenna with conical radiation pattern is proposed and investigated. The proposed CP antenna has a single feed, a low profile, and a very simple structure. The patch has an octagon-star shape, and can be considered as a superimposition of two square patches. By generating two orthogonal degenerated TM11 modes from the two superimposed square patches, omnidirectional CP radiation is achieved for the proposed antenna. The operation mechanism of the antenna is theoretically explained. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and measured. Measured results are consistent with the simulated and theoretical results. The antenna can produce a conical CP radiation pattern with a measured average axial ratio (AR) of 1.80 dB in the azimuth plane ( $theta = 45$ °) and a measured 3-dB AR bandwidth covering the global positioning system L1 band.
Auteurs: Yuzhong Shi;Juhua Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2073 - 2078
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Circularly Polarized Rectenna Array Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide Structure With Harmonic Suppression
Résumé:
A compact circularly polarized rectenna with harmonic suppression for wireless power transmission at 5.8 GHz is proposed in this letter. The substrate integrated waveguide structure is adopted for enhanced gain, unidirectional patterns, and surface wave suppression. A rectifier, which consists of a matching network, a diode, and a dc-pass filter, is integrated with the antenna at the back side. The proposed rectenna is fabricated and measured. It features 6.9 dB gain, 0.67 dB axial ratio, and 30 dB return loss. The conversion efficiency is 65.87% with a 700 Ω load. A rectenna array is also built for an increased aperture. It shows 61.49% conversion efficiency with 650 Ω load in measurement. Both the rectenna and array are satisfactory choices for wireless power transfer usage.
Auteurs: Yang Yang;Lu Li;Jun Li;Yilin Liu;Bing Zhang;Huacheng Zhu;Kama Huang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 684 - 688
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Closed-Loop Mode-Localized Accelerometer
Résumé:
This paper reports a closed-loop mode-localized accelerometer for the first time. The accelerometer utilizes weakly coupled single-tine resonators as the sensing element to decrease the number of vibration modes. Based on a proposed closed-loop readout technique, the transient responses of the mode-localized accelerometer can be measured directly in the time domain. The test results show that the measured amplitude ratio noise and the resolution under closed-loop circumstances are $1.409 times 10^{-5}/surd $ Hz and $7.608~mu text{g}/surd $ Hz, respectively, which are largely improved compared with those ( $9.883 times 10^{-4}/surd $ Hz and 0.744 mg/ $surd $ Hz) under the open-loop measurement. The sensitivity based on the amplitude ratio readout is ~124 times higher than that of the frequency with the acceleration input of [−1g, +1g], which indicates that the high sensitivity of the mode-localized sensors can be also obtained utilizing closed-loop control. [2017–0148]
Auteurs: Jing Yang;Jiming Zhong;Honglong Chang;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 210 - 217
Editeur: IEEE
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» A CMOS SPAD Sensor With a Multi-Event Folded Flash Time-to-Digital Converter for Ultra-Fast Optical Transient Capture
Résumé:
A digital silicon photomultiplier in 130-nm CMOS imaging technology implements time-correlated single photon counting at an order of magnitude beyond the conventional pile-up limit. The sensor comprises a $32 times 32,,43$ % fill-factor single photon avalanche diode array with a multi-event folded-flash time-to-digital converter architecture operating at 10 GS/s. 264 bins $times16$ bit histograms are generated and read out from the chip at a maximal 188 kHz enabling fast time resolved scanning or ultrafast low-light event capture. Full optical and electrical characterization results are presented.
Auteurs: Tarek Al Abbas;Neale A.W. Dutton;Oscar Almer;Neil Finlayson;Francescopaolo Mattioli Della Rocca;Robert Henderson;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 18, issue:8, pages: 3163 - 3173
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Combined Source Integral Equation With Weak Form Combined Source Condition
Résumé:
A combined source integral equation (CSIE) is constructed on the basis of the electric field IE (EFIE) to solve electromagnetic radiation and scattering problems containing perfect electrically conducting bodies. It is discretized with Rao–Wilton–Glisson basis functions only, for both electric and magnetic surface current densities. The combined source condition, which ensures the uniqueness of the solution and circumvents the interior resonance problem, is implemented as a weak form side condition. Compared with the common combined field IE, the proposed CSIE shows superior accuracy for sharp edges as well as structures with the interior resonance problem. Furthermore, the iterative solver convergence of the CSIE is faster than for the EFIE, which shows about the same accuracy as the CSIE. Results of numerical scattering simulations are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the presented CSIE.
Auteurs: Jonas Kornprobst;Thomas F. Eibert;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2151 - 2155
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Communicating Antenna Array with a Dual-Energy Harvesting Functionality [Wireless Corner]
Résumé:
This article discusses the design and dual functionality of two antenna arrays that operate from 1.8 to 2.4 GHz. Each antenna array is composed of two elements and proposed for either communication or radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting. The antenna arrays are integrated vertically on top of a solar panel. Copper-based and transparent inverted-F antennas constitute the elements of both arrays. The transparent array has the same dimensions and topology as the copperbased one. Its purpose is to verify that the integration of the copper-based inverted-F antenna arrays on top of the solar panel does not majorly impact the solar panel's efficiency. A rectifying circuit that is positioned at the output of both arrays is also designed and tested. The rectifying circuit converts the collected RF energy into dc power that can supplement the solar panel's supply during the absence of solar energy. The measured performance results of the fabricated system, which is composed of the two array antennas in addition to the rectifying circuit, show good agreement with the simulated data.
Auteurs: Youssef Tawk;Joseph Costantine;Firas Ayoub;Christos G. Christodoulou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 132 - 144
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Two-via Hammer Spanner-Type Polarization-Dependent Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure
Résumé:
In this letter, a compact two-via hammer spanner-type polarization-dependent electromagnetic bandgap (TVHS-PDEBG) structure is proposed. Asymmetrical structure of the TVHS-PDEBG results in different bandgap properties in the $x$ - and $y$ -directions. Compactness of the structure is achieved because of the usage of two-via per unit PDEBG cell, U-shaped rectangular slot, stretched strip, and square EBG patch with central located via embedded in adjacent PDEBG cell. The simulation of the TVHS-PDEBG is carried out using Ansoft high-frequency structure simulator, and it is validated experimentally. These results are compared with fabricated central located via EBG having similar parameters. Simulated and experimental results prove that, compared with complementary split ring resonator-based PDEBG and dual asymmetrical U-shaped-type PDEBG, the TVHS-PDEBG presents a 35.48% and 16.66% reduction in the center frequency of the lower bandgap.
Auteurs: Pramod P. Bhavarthe;Surendra S. Rathod;Kuraparthi T. V. Reddy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 284 - 286
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact VLSI System for Bio-Inspired Visual Motion Estimation
Résumé:
This paper proposes a bio-inspired visual motion estimation algorithm based on motion energy, along with its compact very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture using low-cost embedded systems. The algorithm mimics motion perception functions of retina, V1, and MT neurons in a primate visual system. It involves operations of ternary edge extraction, spatiotemporal filtering, motion energy extraction, and velocity integration. Moreover, we propose the concept of confidence map to indicate the reliability of estimation results on each probing location. Our algorithm involves only additions and multiplications during runtime, which is suitable for low-cost hardware implementation. The proposed VLSI architecture employs multiple (frame, pixel, and operation) levels of pipeline and massively parallel processing arrays to boost the system performance. The array unit circuits are optimized to minimize hardware resource consumption. We have prototyped the proposed architecture on a low-cost field-programmable gate array platform (Zynq 7020) running at 53-MHz clock frequency. It achieved 30-frame/s real-time performance for velocity estimation on $160 times 120$ probing locations. A comprehensive evaluation experiment showed that the estimated velocity by our prototype has relatively small errors (average endpoint error < 0.5 pixel and angular error < 10°) for most motion cases.
Auteurs: Cong Shi;Gang Luo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 1021 - 1036
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact, Scanning Tightly Coupled Dipole Array With Parasitic Strips for Next-Generation Wireless Applications
Résumé:
A wideband one-dimensional tightly coupled dipole array (TCDA) with enhanced impedance matching is presented in this letter, which consists of eight printed dipole units, a coplanar waveguide with ground feeding network, and two rows of parasitic strips. The feed structure is simple and small with good ports isolation. A $1times 8$ prototype was fabricated and tested. A four-channel phase-amplitude control board was designed to validate the beam-steering function of the proposed TCDA. This array has a height of only $0.176;lambda_{text{low}}$, and it exhibits a measured 10 dB return-loss operating bandwidth of 92.7% from 2.2 to 6.0 GHz for the scan angle up to $pm 45^{circ }$ broadside radiation. The cross-polarization suppression level is better than 15 dB in the whole scanning range. The measured results show high gains $>$ 6.9 dBi, high efficiency $>$ 67%, and low sidelobe level (SLL) $<$ $-$10 dB over the operating band and scanning angles. This antenna array can be applied in the future massive multiple-input–multiple-output beamforming systems for 5G and other applications.
Auteurs: Yibo Wang;Lijia Zhu;Hongwei Wang;Yong Luo;Guangli Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 534 - 537
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparative Study Between PI and Type-II Compensators for H-Bridge PFC Converter
Résumé:
This paper presents a comparative study between proportional integral (PI) and type-II compensation techniques, aiming at achieving high power quality as well as high bandwidth to enhance the dynamic performance of an H-bridge power factor correction (PFC) converter. The conventional PI compensator has a limitation in terms of the tradeoff between the input current reference tracking accuracy and the control loop bandwidth. Attenuating high frequency components in the input current requires a smaller bandwidth, which potentially can degrade the input power factor. Introducing an additional pole in type-II compensator helps to achieve both the requirements simultaneously as well as to reduce the inductor core loss due to reduced current ripple. As verification to the proof-of-concept, a hardware prototype for single-phase H-bridge PFC is built and tested upto 700 W. Incorporating type-II over PI compensator results in an improvement in total harmonic distortion from 6.8% to 4.2% and increase in efficiency from 98.2% to 99%, as exhibited by the experimental results.
Auteurs: Ayan Mallik;Jiangheng Lu;Alireza Khaligh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1128 - 1135
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparative Study of Impedance Measurement Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring Applications
Résumé:
Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are scientifically and economically relevant as methods of detecting structural damage to various types of structures, thus increasing safety and reducing maintenance costs. Among the various principles of damage detection, the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method is based on the electrical impedance measurement of piezoelectric transducers attached to the monitored structure. Here, the accuracy and precision of the measurement system are fundamental for the correct diagnosis of the structure. Therefore, this paper performs a comparative analysis of two impedance measurement techniques for damage detection that are typically used in commercial impedance analyzers and other alternative measurement systems: 1) transient-state measurements using a sweep excitation signal and 2) steady-state measurements using a pure sinusoidal signal for each excitation frequency. Tests were performed with resistive and capacitive loads with known values and a piezoelectric transducer fixed to an aluminum bar representing a monitored structure. The two techniques were compared based on the accuracy, precision, and time required for the measurements. The results highlight the important features of each technique that should be considered for the development of impedance-based SHM systems and the correct diagnosis of monitored structures.
Auteurs: Danilo Ecidir Budoya;Fabricio Guimarães Baptista;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 67, issue:4, pages: 912 - 924
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparison of Finite Control Set and Continuous Control Set Model Predictive Control Schemes for Speed Control of Induction Motors
Résumé:
This paper presents a comparative study of two predictive speed control schemes for induction machine (IM) in terms of their design and performance. The first control scheme is finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) with modulation control and the second control scheme is continuous control set-model predictive control (CCS-MPC) with space vector-pulse width modulation. The two schemes adopt the cascaded control approach, which consists of an inner MPC loop for torque control and outer MPC loop for speed control using two individual cost functions. The outer MPC produces the required torque to drive the IM at the reference speed while the reference torque is taken as the input of the inner MPC, which in turn generates control signals for the inverter. The control states of the two MPCs are constrained with the maximum limits of the drive system. The state feedback is achieved with a standard Kalman filter, which estimates the nonmeasured load torque. For a fair comparison, both approaches are applied to the same IM at the same operational circumstances. The control approaches are implemented and validated in an experimental environment using the same sampling frequency on the same test bench (3.7 kW IM drive). The behavior of the control approaches is assessed by applying reference and disturbance steps to the system in different operational modes. Comparison of the predictive schemes leads to the conclusion that the both MPC approaches achieve similar performances. However, the CCS-MPC scheme has a smaller current ripple and is of low computational complexity. The computing duration is not very different for the three tested schemes. CCS-MPC can cope with a less powerful DSP than for FCS.
Auteurs: Abdelsalam A. Ahmed;Byung Kwon Koh;Young Il Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 1334 - 1346
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comprehensive Assessment of PV Hosting Capacity on Low-Voltage Distribution Systems
Résumé:
Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity has become a concern for utilities in scenarios of high penetration due to impacts on voltage quality, such as over/undervoltage and voltage unbalance, and on equipment loading (conductors and transformers). This paper uses a simplified Monte Carlo-based method to analyze this issue, which is applied to 50 000 real low-voltage (LV) systems. Results show that it is possible to perform a risk-based analysis of hosting capacity by means of a lognormal distribution. Furthermore, overvoltage is found to be the most restrictive impact of PV integration; such information can help to guide utility actions to avoid technical violations. Extensive sensitivity studies are also presented to quantify the effects of several factors on the PV hosting capacity. The effects of number of customers with PV generators, PV power factor, voltage magnitude on the medium-voltage system, load level, and conductor impedances are investigated. It is also shown that the hosting capacity for the entire utility can be estimated by performing simulations only on 1% of the circuits randomly selected. In addition to providing a comprehensive overview of PV hosting capacity in real systems, the method can be used by utilities to improve the management of LV systems with high PV penetration.
Auteurs: Ricardo Torquato;Diogo Salles;Caio Oriente Pereira;Paulo Cesar Magalhaes Meira;Walmir Freitas;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 1002 - 1012
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compressive Tracking Method Based on Gaussian Differential Graph and Weighted Cosine Similarity Metric
Résumé:
This letter presents an extended compressive tracking algorithm to increase the stabilization and robustness in scale variation, rotation, and illumination variation. The features are extracted from the Gaussian differential graphs and taken as input signals of compressive sensing. In order to reduce the computational cost, the operating area is narrowed down to the region of interest. The algorithm utilizes a naïve Bayes classifier to get N candidate target locations with N highest classifying scores. Their weighted multiframe cosine similarities with the ground truth object from the initial frame and the most similar object in some adjacent frame are calculated to find the target location in current frame. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over some state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. It also can efficiently meet the needs of real-time tracking.
Auteurs: Wang Minmin;Sun Shengli;Li Yejin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 501 - 505
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Conformal Circularly Polarized Antenna for Wireless Capsule Endoscope Systems
Résumé:
A conformal circularly polarized (CP) capsule antenna, designed for ingestible wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) systems at industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band (2.4–2.48 GHz), is presented. The antenna consists of a rectangular loop, an asymmetric U-shaped strip, and a protruding L-shaped stub printed on the top of the dielectric substrate. The CP wave is generated by the corner-fed U-shaped strip protruding into the rectangular slot. Further, by adjusting the size of the U-shaped strip and the L-shaped stub, the 3 dB axial-ratio (AR) band can be fully covered by the 10 dB impedance band. The simulated 10 dB impedance bandwidth (BW) and 3 dB ARBW are 31.58% and 13.11%, respectively. The simulated results show that the overlapped impedance BW and ARBW are from 2.28 to 2.6 GHz, which completely covers the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The measured 10 dB impedance BW is 39.21%. Finally, the radiation performance, safety consideration, and link budget of the antenna are examined and characterized. Owing to the broad overlapped impedance BW and ARBW, the minimized in-capsule foot print, and ease of fabrication, the designed antenna is a capable candidate for a WCE system.
Auteurs: Rongqiang Li;Yong-Xin Guo;Guohong Du;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2119 - 2124
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Conformal Differentially Fed Antenna for Ingestible Capsule System
Résumé:
A conformal differentially fed antenna at 915 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (902–928 MHz) band for monitoring in body core temperature is presented in this paper. In virtue of its characteristics of ultrathin and flexible substrate, the peculiarity that proposed antenna can be wrapped around the capsule inner wall demonstrates the satisfactory performance of occupying a little space. The volume of the conformal patch antenna only measures 30 mm3 by notching meandering slots to achieve miniaturization. The simulated impedance bandwidth ( $vert S_{11}vert < -10$ dB) covers from 861 to 942 MHz. The integrated capsule system, inserted in a cubic homogeneous muscle phantom for initial parametric studies and optimization, occupies the dimensions of 22 mm (length) $times11$ mm (diameter). Meanwhile, the performance on the sensitivity to surrounding environment and specific absorption rate distribution are studied. In the measurements, the conformal antenna is rolled around a 3-D-printed capsule inside minced pork. The pork temperature data are monitored in time and transferred wirelessly. To confirm the system reliability, hardware circuits are designed with differential concept and a data logger is also realized to record in-time temperature data. Finally, the feasibility of system function demonstrates the suitability of the conformal differentially fed antenna in biomedical applications.
Auteurs: Ke Zhang;Changrong Liu;Xueguan Liu;Honglong Cao;Yudi Zhang;Xinmi Yang;Huiping Guo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1695 - 1703
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Construction of Odd Length Generators for Optimal Families of Perfect Sequences
Résumé:
In this paper, we give a construction of optimal families of $N$ -ary perfect sequences of period $N^{2}$ , where $N$ is a positive odd integer. For this, we re-define perfect generators and optimal generators of any length $N$ which were originally defined only for odd prime lengths by Park, Song, Kim, and Golomb in 2016, but investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for these generators for arbitrary length $N$ . Based on this, we propose a construction of odd length optimal generators by using odd prime length optimal generators. For a fixed odd integer $N$ and its odd prime factor $p$ , the proposed construction guarantees at least $(N/p)^{p-1}phi (N/p)phi (p)phi (p-1)/phi (N)^{2}$ inequivalent optimal generators of length $N$ in the sense of constant multiples, cyclic shifts, and/or decimations. Here, $phi (cdot )$ is Euler’s totient function. From an optimal generator one can construct lots of different $N$ -ary optimal families of period $N^{2}$ , all of which contain $p_{text {min}}-1$ perfect seque- ces, where $p_{text {min}}$ is the least positive prime factor of $N$ .
Auteurs: Min Kyu Song;Hong-Yeop Song;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 2901 - 2909
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Continuous-Time MASH 1-1-1 Delta–Sigma Modulator With FIR DAC and Encoder-Embedded Loop-Unrolling Quantizer in 40-nm CMOS
Résumé:
This paper presents a continuous-time multistage noise-shaping (MASH) delta–sigma modulator (CT- $Delta Sigma text{M}$ ) employing finite impulse response (FIR) digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and encoder-embedded loop-unrolling (EELU) quantizers. The proposed MASH 1-1-1 topology is a cascade of three single-loop first-order CT- $Delta Sigma text{M}$ stages, each of which consists of an active $RC$ integrator, a current-steering DAC, and an EELU quantizer. An FIR filter in the main 1.5-bit DAC improves the modulator’s jitter sensitivity performance. FIR’s effect on the noise transfer function of the modulator is compensated in the digital domain, thanks to the MASH topology. Instead of employing a conventional analog direct feedback path for excess loop delay compensation, a 1.5-bit EELU quantizer based on multiplexing comparator outputs is proposed; this approach is suitable for high-speed operation. Fabricated in a 40-nm low-power CMOS technology, the modulator’s prototype achieves a 67.3 dB of signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio, 68 dB of signal-to-noise ratio, and 68.2 dB of dynamic range within 50.5 MHz of bandwidth, while consuming 19 mW of total power.
Auteurs: Qiyuan Liu;Alexander Edward;Dadian Zhou;Jose Silva-Martinez;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 756 - 767
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Copula-Based Granger Causality Measure for the Analysis of Neural Spike Train Data
Résumé:
In systems neuroscience, it is becoming increasingly common to record the activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously via electrode arrays. The ability to accurately measure the causal interactions among multiple neurons in the brain is crucial to understanding how neurons work in concert to generate specific brain functions. The development of new statistical methods for assessing causal influence between spike trains is still an active field of neuroscience research. Here, we suggest a copula-based Granger causality measure for the analysis of neural spike train data. This method is built upon our recent work on copula Granger causality for the analysis of continuous-valued time series by extending it to point-process neural spike train data. The proposed method is therefore able to reveal nonlinear and high-order causality in the spike trains while retaining all the computational advantages such as model-free, efficient estimation, and variability assessment of Granger causality. The performance of our algorithm can be further boosted with time-reversed data. Our method performed well on extensive simulations, and was then demonstrated on neural activity simultaneously recorded from primary visual cortex of a monkey performing a contour detection task.
Auteurs: Meng Hu;Wu Li;Hualou Liang;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 562 - 569
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Core Compact Model for IGZO TFTs Considering Degeneration Mechanism
Résumé:
A core scheme including dc and capacitance models of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors is presented based on terms of surface potential. Due to the intrinsic physical fact, carrier degeneracy is taken into account. A simpler symmetric quadrature version of charge-sheet model is adopted, which offers a new approach to deduce the expressions of current and terminal charges. Through the extensive comparisons between model results and numerical iterations or experimental data, the validity of the proposed models is strongly supported. The simplicity of algorithm and clear physical conception make the model suitable for circuit simulators.
Auteurs: Wanling Deng;Jielin Fang;Xixiong Wei;Weijing Wu;Junkai Huang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1370 - 1376
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Coupled-Line Coupling Structure for the Design of Quasi-Elliptic Bandpass Filters
Résumé:
A coupled-line coupling structure is proposed for the design of quasi-elliptic bandpass filters (BPFs). The coupled-line structure functions as the input coupling structure for a BPF and introduces one pair of symmetrical transmission zeros at around the cutoff frequencies. Equivalent circuit models play an important role in the design of microwave filters. Accordingly, this paper undertakes a major effort to develop the equivalent circuit of the coupling structure. The equivalent circuit is in a form that can be readily used in combination with a given direct-coupled filter. The coupling structure can serve as a basic building block for the design of quasi-elliptic BPFs. As demonstrated by the theoretical and experimental treatment, the coupling structure can be used to transform a Chebyshev filter into a quasi-elliptic filter.
Auteurs: Chih-Jung Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1921 - 1925
Editeur: IEEE
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» A DC-Link Voltage Fast Control Strategy for High-Speed PMSM/G in Flywheel Energy Storage System
Résumé:
This paper presents a dc-link voltage fast control strategy for high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor/generator of flywheel energy storage system (FESS) to ensure fast dynamic performance within its wide operation range. Instead of the conventional strategy with cascaded outer dc-link voltage loop and inner current loop, the proposed strategy is a direct voltage control strategy without an intermediate current loop. The nonlinear dc-link voltage loop model is globally linearized by treating the square of dc-link voltage as the state variable, and lumping the nonlinear and uncertain terms in the power balance equation as the total disturbance. An extended state observer (ESO) is designed to observe the total disturbance, and a control law that compensates the speed variation and the total disturbance is proposed. The inner dynamic of the proposed ESO is analyzed, and the tracking performance and antidisturbance capability of the proposed strategy is hereby derived. Finally, the proposed strategy is validated on a high-speed FESS test bench.
Auteurs: Xiang Zhang;Jiaqiang Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1671 - 1679
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Deep Learning Architecture for Temporal Sleep Stage Classification Using Multivariate and Multimodal Time Series
Résumé:
Sleep stage classification constitutes an important preliminary exam in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. It is traditionally performed by a sleep expert who assigns to each 30 s of the signal of a sleep stage, based on the visual inspection of signals such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), electrooculograms (EOGs), electrocardiograms, and electromyograms (EMGs). We introduce here the first deep learning approach for sleep stage classification that learns end-to-end without computing spectrograms or extracting handcrafted features, that exploits all multivariate and multimodal polysomnography (PSG) signals (EEG, EMG, and EOG), and that can exploit the temporal context of each 30-s window of data. For each modality, the first layer learns linear spatial filters that exploit the array of sensors to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and the last layer feeds the learnt representation to a softmax classifier. Our model is compared to alternative automatic approaches based on convolutional networks or decisions trees. Results obtained on 61 publicly available PSG records with up to 20 EEG channels demonstrate that our network architecture yields the state-of-the-art performance. Our study reveals a number of insights on the spatiotemporal distribution of the signal of interest: a good tradeoff for optimal classification performance measured with balanced accuracy is to use 6 EEG with 2 EOG (left and right) and 3 EMG chin channels. Also exploiting 1 min of data before and after each data segment offers the strongest improvement when a limited number of channels are available. As sleep experts, our system exploits the multivariate and multimodal nature of PSG signals in order to deliver the state-of-the-art classification performance with a small computational cost.
Auteurs: Stanislas Chambon;Mathieu N. Galtier;Pierrick J. Arnal;Gilles Wainrib;Alexandre Gramfort;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 758 - 769
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Derivative-Based Method for Buried Depth Detection of Metal Conductors
Résumé:
Buried depth of grounding grids is one of the important factors to determine the grounding performance in substations, however, the real buried depth of grounding grids is changed and unknown due to the drawing loss and backfill during the reconstruction of the grounding grids. This paper proposes a derivative-based method to detect the buried depth of different metal conductors. First, the theoretical basis for the derivative-based method to detect the buried depth is described, and an example calculation on buried depth detection according to the magnetic derivation characteristic is carried out for a single conductor case. The results indicate that the main-side-peaks characteristic of the derivative method can determine the buried depth of metal conductor effectively. Then, the analysis of grounding grids is carried out to verify its validation in grounding grid buried depth detection, and results indicate that the method is effective in the cases of magnetic field superimposing, different buried depths of grounding grid, and nonuniform distribution of current in grounding grid. Finally, the experimental results prove that the derivative method works well with low error.
Auteurs: Yang Fan;Liu Kai;Zhu Liwei;Zhang Songyang;Hu Jiayuan;Wang Xiaoyu;Gao Bin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:4, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Detailed Procedure for Harmonic Analysis of Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers Under Discontinuous Conduction Mode and Nonideal Conditions
Résumé:
Fast and detailed calculations of harmonics, generated by three-phase uncontrolled rectifiers with finite dc smoothing, can be performed by using detailed analytical procedures (DAPs). Several DAPs are developed for continuous- and discontinuous-conduction modes (CCM and DCM) when balanced operation of the system is assumed. The authors of this paper have recently proposed a new DAP (model 1a) in which nonideal conditions, such as unbalances and even harmonic voltages on the ac side, are taken into account. However, only CCM is assumed in model 1a. The main objective of this paper is to overcome this limitation of model 1a so that a new DAP (model 1b) for DCM is presented, which is capable of considering unbalanced operation. Moreover, the boundary of the DCM is also estimated for model 1b under nonideal conditions.
Auteurs: Julio G. Mayordomo;Luis F. Beites;Xavier Yang;Wilsun Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 741 - 751
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Diamond:H/WO3 Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
Résumé:
A p-type Diamond:H/WO3 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) based on surface transfer doping is demonstrated. Using a low-temperature ALD-grown HfO2 as gate insulator, the Diamond:H/WO3 MOSFETs show excellent output characteristics, gate-controllable 2-D hole gas, and low gate leakage current. Long-channel FETs exhibit improved subthreshold behavior but reduced transconductance with respect to short-channel devices. An observed WO3-thickness-dependent threshold voltage is consistent with enhanced surface transfer doping as the WO3 layer is thinned down. Low-temperature measurements suggest a significantly lower mobility than expected in this material system. This illustrates the challenge of maintaining high TMO quality during device fabrication.
Auteurs: Zongyou Yin;Moshe Tordjman;Alon Vardi;Rafi Kalish;Jesús A. del Alamo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 39, issue:4, pages: 540 - 543
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Digitally Controlled Fully Integrated Voltage Regulator With 3-D-TSV-Based On-Die Solenoid Inductor With a Planar Magnetic Core for 3-D-Stacked Die Applications in 14-nm Tri-Gate CMOS
Résumé:
A fully integrated digitally controlled buck voltage regulator, featuring hysteretic and pulse frequency modulation control for maximum light load efficiency, with 3-D through-silicon-via-based on-die solenoid inductor with a planar magnetic core in 14-nm tri-gate CMOS, demonstrates 111 nH/mm2 inductance density and 80% conversion efficiency. The inductance density demonstrated is 20 $times $ higher than comparable on-die lateral- or spiral-based inductor densities leading to higher light load efficiency.
Auteurs: Harish K. Krishnamurthy;Sheldon Weng;George E. Mathew;Nachiket Desai;Ruchir Saraswat;Krishnan Ravichandran;James W. Tschanz;Vivek De;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1038 - 1048
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Digitally Programmable Cytomorphic Chip for Simulation of Arbitrary Biochemical Reaction Networks
Résumé:
Prior work has shown that compact analog circuits can faithfully represent and model fundamental biomolecular circuits via efficient log-domain cytomorphic transistor equivalents. Such circuits have emphasized basis functions that are dominant in genetic transcription and translation networks and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-protein binding. Here, we report a system featuring digitally programmable 0.35 μm BiCMOS analog cytomorphic chips that enable arbitrary biochemical reaction networks to be exactly represented thus enabling compact and easy composition of protein networks as well. Since all biomolecular networks can be represented as chemical reaction networks, our protein networks also include the former genetic network circuits as a special case. The cytomorphic analog protein circuits use one fundamental association-dissociation-degradation building-block circuit that can be configured digitally to exactly represent any zeroth-, first-, and second-order reaction including loading, dynamics, nonlinearity, and interactions with other building-block circuits. To address a divergence issue caused by random variations in chip fabrication processes, we propose a unique way of performing computation based on total variables and conservation laws, which we instantiate at both the circuit and network levels. Thus, scalable systems that operate with finite error over infinite time can be built. We show how the building-block circuits can be composed to form various network topologies, such as cascade, fan-out, fan-in, loop, dimerization, or arbitrary networks using total variables. We demonstrate results from a system that combines interacting cytomorphic chips to simulate a cancer pathway and a glycolysis pathway. Both simulations are consistent with conventional software simulations. Our highly parallel digitally programmable analog cytomorphic systems can lead to a useful design, analysis, and simulation tool for studying arbitrary large-scale bio- ogical networks in systems and synthetic biology.
Auteurs: Sung Sik Woo;Jaewook Kim;Rahul Sarpeshkar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 360 - 378
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Diode Bridge Rectifier With Improved Power Quality Using the Capacitive Network
Résumé:
Widely distributed single-phase power electronic rectifier loads are an increasing source of harmonics in the power distribution system. These harmonics have many well-known adverse impacts on the power system, so it is necessary to improve the power quality of the rectifiers. This paper presents a novel single-phase rectifier in which capacitors are used in parallel with diodes in one leg of the rectifier. A general analytical model of the proposed topology is obtained. The closed-form expressions for the rectifier waveforms are utilized in parameter selection that leads to optimal performance in terms of input current total harmonic distortion (THD). Different topologies of rectifiers are compared in terms of the input voltage, current waveform distortion, output dc voltage ripple, and desired target for the dc output voltage. The proposed topology reduces the THD from 145% in a normal rectifier to 63% while maintaining voltage ripple less than 0.3%. The proposed topology keeps dc bus ripple small while simultaneously providing better THD. The passive components considered for improving harmonic injection are two small capacitors. The additional cost required for the proposed rectifier is low, and the proposed rectifier also has a higher efficiency than the other commonly used diode rectifier topologies.
Auteurs: Sagar Gupta;Nimesh Vamanan;Vinod John;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1563 - 1572
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Direct Approach for Determining the Switch Points in the Karnik–Mendel Algorithm
Résumé:
The Karnik–Mendel algorithm is used to compute the centroid of interval type-2 fuzzy sets, determining the switch points needed for the lower and upper bounds of the centroid, through an iterative process. It is commonly acknowledged that there is no closed-form solution for determining such switch points. Many enhanced algorithms have been proposed to improve the computational efficiency of the Karnik–Mendel algorithm. However, all of these algorithms are still based on iterative procedures. In this paper, a direct approach based on derivatives for determining the switch points without multiple iterations has been proposed, together with mathematical proof that these switch points are correctly determining the lower and upper bounds of the centroid. Experimental simulations show that the direct approach obtains the same switch points, but is more computationally efficient than any of the existing (iterative) algorithms. Thus, we propose that this algorithm should be used in any application of interval type-2 fuzzy sets in which the centroid is required.
Auteurs: Chao Chen;Robert John;Jamie Twycross;Jonathan M. Garibaldi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 1079 - 1085
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Direct Matrix Synthesis for In-Line Filters With Transmission Zeros Generated by Frequency-Variant Couplings
Résumé:
A direct matrix approach is presented for the first time to synthesize high selectivity in-line topology filters where multiple transmission zeros are generated and independently controlled by a set of frequency-variant couplings. As the resultant network only involves resonators cascaded one by one without any auxiliary elements (such as cross-coupled or extracted-pole structures), this paper provides the best synthesis solution in configuration simplicity for narrowband filters. Considering both the couplings and capacitances of a traditional low-pass prototype, a generalized transformation on the admittance matrix is introduced as the basis of the synthesis, which allows more than one cross-coupling to be annihilated in a single step, while generating a frequency-variant coupling simultaneously. It is then shown that the in-line topology as well as some other unique topologies can be determined by applying a specific sequence of the transformations. For the validation, a group of examples with synthesis as well as experimental results are demonstrated.
Auteurs: Yuxing He;Giuseppe Macchiarella;Gang Wang;Wentao Wu;Liguo Sun;Lu Wang;Rong Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1780 - 1789
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Direct Proof of SFIE
Résumé:
A simple, direct proof is given for the shifted frequency internal equivalence.
Auteurs: Alper Ünal;Sevda Özdemir;Adnan Köksal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2141 - 2142
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Discontinuous Galerkin Surface Integral Equation Method for Scattering From Multiscale Homogeneous Objects
Résumé:
A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) surface integral equation approach is proposed for scattering from homogeneous dielectric objects. The formulation of DG for homogeneous bodies is derived from the combined tangential field integral equation. The differences of DG for penetrable and nonpenetrable objects are presented by numerical experiments to demonstrate the numerical mechanism of DG. Numerical experiments demonstrate the great advantages of our presented formulation of DG for homogeneous objects in efficiency, flexibility, and scalability. A series numerical results are presented to show the capability of the presented DG solution for homogeneous bodies, especially for multiscale homogeneous bodies.
Auteurs: Bei-Bei Kong;Xin-Qing Sheng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1937 - 1946
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Discrete RET Model for Millimeter-Wave Propagation Through Vegetation
Résumé:
A modified discrete radiative energy transfer (dRET) model has been developed envisaging to overcome some of the limitations found in the original dRET formulation, namely in terms of angular resolution, oblique and nonuniform incidence, and antenna patterns. In addition, the discretized squared nature of the dRET model can lead to some amount of staircase error. Hence, this paper also proposes an input parameter scaling model, enabling the characterization of tree cells with reduced size. The performance of the modified dRET model is assessed not only against the current ITU-R P.833–8 recommendation for propagation in vegetation but also against directional spectra measurements conducted in an outdoor inhomogeneous forest at 20 and 62.4 GHz.
Auteurs: Nuno R. Leonor;Rafael F. S. Caldeirinha;Telmo R. Fernandes;Jürgen Richter;Miqdad Al-Nuaimi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1985 - 1998
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Distributed Management Scheme for Energy Storage in a Smart Grid With Communication Impairments
Résumé:
With the integration of distributed generations into smart grid, energy storage units (ESUs) are deployed to absorb excessive fluctuation in power flow. Data must be collected from sensors when making ESU charging and discharging decisions. However, existing ESU management schemes have not considered this need of sending data over realistic communication channels with packet errors. This paper proposes a distributed ESU management scheme that can operate reliably over error-prone wireless communication channels. The proposed scheme uses the Markov decision process to make local decision at each ESU, and aims to minimize power loss while keeping the voltage violation probability below an acceptable level. The scheme has been evaluated through extensive simulations. Results confirm that the scheme can operate efficiently over impaired communication channels. Power losses are reduced by up to 50% compared to a naive centralized scheme while maintaining the voltage violation probability below 0.005.
Auteurs: Peng-Yong Kong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 1392 - 1402
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Double Auction Mechanism to Bridge Users’ Task Requirements and Providers’ Resources in Two-Sided Cloud Markets
Résumé:
Double auction-based pricing model is an efficient pricing model to balance users’ and providers’ benefits. Existing double auction mechanisms usually require both users and providers to bid with the unit price and the number of VMs. However, in practice users seldom know the exact number of VMs that meets their task requirements, which leads to users’ task requirements inconsistent with providers’ resource. In this paper, we propose a truthful double auction mechanism, including a matching process as well as a pricing and VM allocation scheme, to bridge users’ task requirements and providers’ resources in two-sided cloud markets. In the matching process, we design a cost-aware resource algorithm based on Lyapunov optimization techniques to precisely obtain the number of VMs that meets users’ task requirements. In the pricing and VM allocation scheme, we apply the idea of second-price auction to determine the final price and the number of provisioned VMs in the double auction. We theoretically prove our proposed mechanism is individual-rational, truthful and budget-balanced, and analyze the optimality of proposed algorithm. Through simulation experiments, the results show that the individual profits achieved by our algorithm are 12.35 and 11.02 percent larger than that of scale-out and greedy scale-up algorithms respectively for 90 percent of users, and the social welfare of our mechanism is only 7.01 percent smaller than that of the optimum mechanism in the worst case.
Auteurs: Li Lu;Jiadi Yu;Yanmin Zhu;Minglu Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 29, issue:4, pages: 720 - 733
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Dual-Band Tunable Metamaterial Near-Unity Absorber Composed of Periodic Cross and Disk Graphene Arrays
Résumé:
A three-dimensional dual-band perfect absorber in the THz range (3–10 THz) is theoretically investigated. The absorber is composed of periodically placed cross- and disk-shaped graphene arrays on the top of a gold layer separated by a thick SiO$_{2}$ dielectric spacer. The simulated results show two absorption peaks with near-unity absorbance ( $99.923%$ and $99.601%$) at wavelengths 43.747 $mu$ m and 69.94 $mu$ m, respectively. Also, the absorber is insensitive to the polarization of the incident light and has a good tolerance to the incident angle whether it is TE or TM waves. Moreover, the peak wavelengths of the absorber can be flexibly modulated by varying the Fermi level $mu _{C}$ of graphene while no need to refabricate the structure. This paper provides a new perspective for the design of graphene-based tunable multiband perfect THz absorbers, but not limited to THz absorbers, and may also be used in other THz graphene-based photonic devices.
Auteurs: Jianguo Zhang;Jinping Tian;Lu Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 1 - 12
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Dynamic Channel Model for Indoor Wireless Signals: Working Around Interference Caused by Moving Human Bodies
Résumé:
The use of indoor wireless devices has substantially increased in recent years. This escalation is due to the expansion of traditional communication devices, such as mobile phones and laptop computers, to less traditional ones, such as wirelessly communicating sensor nodes present in smart homes, office buildings, and industrial environments. The placement of these nodes varies considerably from one application to the next, but, when the nodes are placed indoors and within the vicinity of human height, a body's movement can cause significant time-varying channel conditions. The movement is even more compelling in such networks because of the power constraints involved [1]. Thus, an accurate study on the impact of a moving body and the characteristics of indoor propagation channels is important.
Auteurs: Marshed Mohamed;Michael Cheffena;Fernando Perez Fontan;Arild Moldsvor;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 82 - 91
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Family of Polyphase Sequences With Asymptotically Optimal Correlation
Résumé:
Sequences with low correlation have important applications in communications, radar, and cryptography. In this paper, a simple construction of polyphase sequences using additive and multiplicative characters over the finite field ${mathrm {F}}_{q}$ is proposed. The construction works for any finite field ${mathrm {F}}_{q}$ with $q>2$ and generates a family of $q-1$ sequences with period $q-1$ and maximum correlation $sqrt {q}$ . This family is asymptotically optimal with respect to the well-known Welch bound. Most notably, the maximum autocorrelation magnitude of each sequence in this family is equal to 1, and every two distinct sequences are orthogonal to each other. The distribution of the correlation magnitudes of this family is also established.
Auteurs: Zhengchun Zhou;Tor Helleseth;Udaya Parampalli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 2896 - 2900
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast and Accurate Rule-Base Generation Method for Mamdani Fuzzy Systems
Résumé:
The problem of learning fuzzy rule bases is analyzed from the perspective of finding a favorable balance between the accuracy of the system, the speed required to learn the rules, and, finally, the interpretability of the rule bases obtained. Therefore, we introduce a complete design procedure to learn and then optimize the system rule base, called the precise and fast fuzzy modeling approach. Under this paradigm, fuzzy rules are generated from numerical data using a parameterizable greedy-based learning method called selection-reduction, whose accuracy–speed efficiency is confirmed through empirical results and comparisons with reference methods. Qualitative justification for this method is provided based on the coaction between fuzzy logic and the intrinsic properties of greedy algorithms. To complete the precise and fast fuzzy modeling strategy, we finally present a rule-base optimization technique driven by a novel rule redundancy index, which takes into account the concepts of the distance between rules and the influence of a rule over the dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed index can be used to obtain compact rule bases, which remain very accurate, thus increasing system interpretability.
Auteurs: Liviu-Cristian Duţu;Gilles Mauris;Philippe Bolon;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 715 - 733
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast Converging Normalization Unit for Stochastic Computing
Résumé:
Stochastic computing is a promising technology for low hardware cost and low power digital signal processing (DSP) systems. However, the quite slow convergence of stochastic normalization leads to low throughput of stochastic computing based DSP systems. In this brief, we propose a fast converging stochastic normalization unit based on joint probability tracking (JPT) method, which operates modified probability tracking on random bit streams to perform the normalization. Simulation results show that the convergence speed of the JPT scheme is as 3.5 times as that of existing methods. According to the synthesis results on 65-nm CMOS technology, the JPT scheme achieves higher (2.8 times) hardware efficiency gains with respect to the existing stochastic computing-based schemes.
Auteurs: Kaining Han;Jianhao Hu;Jienan Chen;Zhengbing Zhang;Hao Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 501 - 505
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast Forgery Detection Algorithm Based on Exponential-Fourier Moments for Video Region Duplication
Résumé:
Region duplication is one of the most common methods of video forgery. Existing forgery detection algorithms generally suffer from inefficiency and are not effective for the forged regions with mirroring. To address these problems, we present a fast forgery detection algorithm based on Exponential-Fourier moments (EFMs) for detecting region duplication in videos. The algorithm first extracts EFMs features from each block in the current frame, and performs a fast match to find potential matching pairs. Then, a postverification scheme is designed to eliminate falsely matched pairs and locate the altered regions in the current frame. Finally, an adaptive parameter-based fast compression tracking algorithm is used to track the tampered regions in the subsequent frames. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm has higher detection accuracy and computational efficiency than those of previous algorithms.
Auteurs: Lichao Su;Cuihua Li;Yuecong Lai;Jianmei Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 825 - 840
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast In-Field Coarse Alignment and Bias Estimation Method for Stationary Intermediate-Grade IMUs
Résumé:
This paper presents an innovative in-field coarse bias estimation (CBE) method for stationary intermediate-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs), which is based on the existence of normality and orthogonality errors in the attitude matrix supplied by the traditional three-axis attitude determination stationary coarse alignment (CA) stage. Differently from the currently existing in-field bias estimation formulations, the proposed CBE method is conceived to be conducted in stationary conditions, jointly with the CA, and it allows the down accelerometer bias and the north and down angular rate sensor biases to be adequately estimated. As a main contribution of this paper, we demonstrate that the proposed CBE method is able to greatly accelerate the estimation process of the aforementioned biases, contributing, hence, to shorten the IMU setup time. A comprehensive error analysis is presented, and the conclusions are twofold: 1) the proposed CBE method is valid regardless of the IMU orientation and 2) its estimation accuracy is mainly constrained by the north accelerometer bias and the position location uncertainty, which are, in general, very reduced. Results from simulated and experimental test confirm the adequacy of the outlined verifications, also attesting the superiority of the proposed CBE method in situations where, due to time constraints, stationary fine alignment procedures are not allowed to be carried out.
Auteurs: Felipe O. Silva;Elder M. Hemerly;Waldemar C. Leite Filho;Hélio K. Kuga;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 67, issue:4, pages: 831 - 838
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast-Switching (1.35- $mu text{s}$ ) Low-Control-Voltage (2.5-V) MEMS T/R Switch Monolithically Integrated With a Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer
Résumé:
This paper describes the design and fabrication of an electrostatic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that can be co-fabricated on the same substrate with a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) as a transmit/receive switch. The structure of the switch is modified from a single CMUT cell. An interrupted transmission line is defined across the center of the cell with control electrodes on both sides to pull a movable plate down. The plate has an insulation layer underneath, and a metal bump is formed on the insulation layer and aligned to the transmission line gap, so that the switch could be turned ON by pulling down the plate with electrostatic force and making the metal bump close the gap in the transmission line. The switch was designed using a finite-element model and fabricated on a glass substrate using anodic bonding. A static characterization was first performed on a switch test structure, which showed that the dc switching voltage was 68 V and the ON-resistance was 50 $Omega $ . The RFin-to-RFout isolation was measured as approximately 66 dB and insertion loss was approximately 4.85 dB for the frequency range commonly used for medical ultrasound imaging. Then, we performed the dynamic characterization in immersion. By setting the dc bias at 67 V, we found that the switch could be operated with a control-voltage as low as 2.5 V. The switching and release times are related to the rise time and fall time of the control signal, respectively. The minimum switching time was measured as 1.34 $mu text{s}$ with a control signal rise time of 300 ns, and the minimum release time was measured as 80 ns with a control signal fall time of 20 ns. We further demonstrated that a 1-kHz control signal with the optimized rise and fall times can be used to conduct and block a sinusoid- l signal with 1-MHz frequency and 300-mVpp amplitude, as well as unipolar pulses with 5-Vpp amplitude, 500-ns pulse width, and 2-kHz repetition rate. The presented MEMS switch could potentially eliminate the high-voltage process requirement for the on-chip front-end electronics of a CMUT-based ultrasound imaging system and thus improve the overall system efficiency. [2017-0225]
Auteurs: Xiao Zhang;Oluwafemi Joel Adelegan;Feysel Yalçın Yamaner;Ömer Oralkan;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 190 - 200
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fault-Tolerant Machine Drive Based on Permanent Magnet-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine
Résumé:
A fault-tolerant machine drive based on permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine is proposed and investigated for aerospace applications where reliability and safety are crucial. In order to achieve enhanced fault-tolerant capability, the risk of permanent magnet field that cannot be turned off under fault conditions is minimized without compromise in torque density and efficiency. This is achieved by employing a synchronous reluctance rotor topology with embedded permanent magnets. Three independent segregated three-phase windings are configured to ensure isolation and nonoverlapping between the three 3-phase winding sets. Each three-phase winding set is driven by a standard three-phase inverter to facilitate fast integration and cost reduction. The machine behavior under various fault conditions has been evaluated by finite element simulations. A 40 kW prototype was designed, constructed, and tested. The test results demonstrate the performance and excellent fault-tolerant capability of the proposed drive system under various faults, including open-circuit and short-circuit conditions.
Auteurs: Bo Wang;Jiabin Wang;Bhaskar Sen;Antonio Griffo;Zhigang Sun;Ellis Chong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1349 - 1359
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Feature Descriptor Based on Local Normalized Difference for Real-World Texture Classification
Résumé:
In this paper, we propose a normalized difference vector (NDV) for texture representation. Compared to local-binary-pattern-based descriptors, the proposed NDV takes full advantage of the local difference, and the size can be extended flexibly to cover a large local region. We further employ the bag-of-words model to integrate the local descriptors into a global feature representation of an image. In addition, two strategies are introduced for the proposed NDV to achieve rotation invariance. We test the proposed texture descriptor on benchmark datasets, such as AniTex, VehApp, KTH-TIPS2a, OpenSurface, and Kylberg. Classification results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed descriptor over state-of-the-art methods.
Auteurs: Wei Zhang;Weidong Zhang;Kan Liu;Jason Gu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 880 - 888
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Feature Ranking and Selection Algorithm for Machine Learning-Based Step Counters
Résumé:
Although ultra wideband (UWB) positioning is considered as one of the most promising solutions for indoor positioning due to its high positioning accuracy, the accuracy in situations with a large number of users will be reduced because the time between two UWB position updates can be very high. To obtain a position estimate in between these updates, we can combine the UWB positioning with a different technology, e.g., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that captures data from an accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. Previous research using the IMU outputs for location-based services employs the periodic behaviour of the accelerometer signal to count steps. However, most of these algorithms require extensive manual tuning of multiple parameters to obtain satisfactory accuracy. To overcome these practical issues, step counting algorithms using machine learning (ML) principles can be developed. In this paper, we consider accelerometer-based step counters using ML. As the performance and complexity of such algorithms depend on the features used in the training and inference phase, proper selection of the employed features is important. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel feature selection algorithm, where we first rank the features based on their Bhattacharyya coefficients and then systematically construct a subset of these ranked features. In this paper, we compare three ranking approaches and apply our algorithm to different ML algorithms employing an experimental set. Although the performance of the evaluated combinations slightly varies for different ML algorithms, their performance is comparable to state-of-the-art step counters, without the need to tune parameters manually.
Auteurs: Stef Vandermeeren;Samuel Van de Velde;Herwig Bruneel;Heidi Steendam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 18, issue:8, pages: 3255 - 3265
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Feature-Reduction Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm Based on Feature-Weighted Entropy
Résumé:
Fuzzy clustering algorithms generally treat data points with feature components under equal importance. However, there are various datasets with irrelevant features involved in clustering process that may cause bad performance for fuzzy clustering algorithms. That is, different feature components should take different importance. In this paper, we present a novel method for improving fuzzy clustering algorithms that can automatically compute individual feature weight, and simultaneously reduce these irrelevant feature components. In fuzzy clustering, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm is the best known. We first consider the FCM objective function with feature-weighted entropy, and construct a learning schema for parameters, and then reduce these irrelevant feature components. We call it a feature-reduction FCM (FRFCM). During FRFCM processes, a new procedure for eliminating irrelevant feature(s) with small weight(s) is created for feature reduction. The computational complexity of FRFCM is also analyzed. Some numerical and real datasets are used to compare FRFCM with various feature-weighted FCM methods in the literature. Experimental results and comparisons actually demonstrate these good aspects of FRFCM with its effectiveness and usefulness in practice.
Auteurs: Miin-Shen Yang;Yessica Nataliani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 817 - 835
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Radial Artery Pulse Waveform Measurement
Résumé:
In this paper, we report the design and experimental validation of a novel optical sensor for radial artery pulse measurement based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and lever amplification mechanism. Pulse waveform analysis is a diagnostic tool for clinical examination and disease diagnosis. High fidelity radial artery pulse waveform has been investigated in clinical studies for estimating central aortic pressure, which is proved to be predictors of cardiovascular diseases. As a three-dimensional cylinder, the radial artery needs to be examined from different locations to achieve optimal pulse waveform for estimation and diagnosis. The proposed optical sensing system is featured as high sensitivity and immunity to electromagnetic interference for multilocation radial artery pulse waveform measurement. The FBG sensor can achieve the sensitivity of 8.236 nm/N, which is comparable to a commonly used electrical sensor. This FBG-based system can provide high accurate measurement, and the key characteristic parameters can be then extracted from the raw signals for clinical applications. The detecting performance is validated through experiments guided by physicians. In the experimental validation, we applied this sensor to measure the pulse waveforms at various positions and depths of the radial artery in the wrist according to the diagnostic requirements. The results demonstrate the high feasibility of using optical systems for physiological measurement and using this FBG sensor for radial artery pulse waveform in clinical applications.
Auteurs: Dagong Jia;Jing Chao;Shuai Li;Hongxia Zhang;Yingzhan Yan;Tiegen Liu;Ye Sun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 839 - 846
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fifth-Order Butterworth OTA-C LPF With Multiple-Output Differential-Input OTA for ECG Applications
Résumé:
This brief proposes a fifth-order Butterworth operational transconductance amplifier-C (OTA-C) low-pass filter (LPF) with multiple-output differential-input (MODI) OTA structure and metal–insulator–metal capacitors for electrocardiography applications. The current division technology is used as an alternative output pair to provide multiple outputs and achieve high linearity. This technique reduces the number of OTAs of the fifth-order LPF from 11 to 6 as compared with the conventional structure. The design issue of linearity is also considered in the implementation of MODI OTA. The proposed filter is fabricated in a 0.18 ${mu }text{m}$ complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology with an area of 0.12 mm2. The LPF achieved a total harmonic distortion of 49.8 dBc under a bandwidth of 50 Hz and input voltage of 86 mV $_text{pp}$ at a 1-V supply voltage. The total power dissipation is 350 nW.
Auteurs: Chuan-Yu Sun;Shuenn-Yuh Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 421 - 425
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Finite Element Versus Analytical Approach to the Solution of the Current Diffusion Equation in Tokamaks
Résumé:
This paper deals with two efficient approaches for solving the current diffusion equation (CDE), which governs current diffusion through the conductive plasma inside a tokamak and compares them to CRONOS tokamak simulation suite, as well. Namely, CDE is solved via the finite-element method (FEM) and an analytical technique, respectively, and the obtained results are subsequently compared with the solution obtained from the state-of-the-art CRONOS suite with finite-difference calculations. The FEM solution is carried out featuring the use of linear and Hermite type shape functions, respectively, while the analytical solution is obtained by applying certain approximations to the CDE. The tradeoff between different approaches has been undertaken. Thus, the results obtained via the FEM approach (with Hermite basis function, in particular) show very good agreement with the CRONOS results, while also providing the stability of the solution. On the other hand, the results obtained via the analytical solution clearly demonstrate a good agreement with the numerical results in the edge region, which makes it very useful for various applications, e.g., for benchmarking purposes.
Auteurs: Silvestar Šesnić;Vicko Dorić;Dragan Poljak;Anna Šušnjara;Jean-Francois Artaud;Jakub Urban;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 1027 - 1034
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Five-Port Integrated UWB and Narrowband Antennas System Design for CR Applications
Résumé:
The main motive of this paper is to discuss a design of compact five-port integrated ultrawideband (UWB) and narrowband (NB) antennas system for cognitive radio applications. The proposed system composes of one UWB antenna for spectrum sensing and four NB antennas for communication. The UWB and NB antennas are printed on a very compact FR-4 substrate of dimensions 40 mm $times36$ mm $times1.6$ mm. The UWB antenna coupled with port 1 is designed to sense the complete UWB spectrum of 3.1–10.6 GHz approved by Federal Communications Commission in 2002. The four NB antennas operate at different single or dual bands to cover the complete UWB spectrum. In particular, the first NB antenna allied with port 2 achieves a single operating band ranges from 8.7 to 9.92 GHz. The second NB antenna associated with port 3 also covers a single band from 9.82 to 10.74 GHz. The third NB antenna linked to port 4 yields dual bands from 3.06 to 4.23 GHz and 6.33 to 8.83 GHz. The fourth NB antenna accessed at port 5 operates in a single band from 4 to 6.37 GHz. Isolation between the antennas is less than 16 dB over the antennas operating bands. Finally, the proposed integrated structure is fabricated and verified. Experimental results have a good agreement with the simulated results.
Auteurs: Anveshkumar Nella;Abhay Suresh Gandhi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1669 - 1676
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Five-Tissue-Layer Human Body Communication Circuit Model Tunable to Individual Characteristics
Résumé:
Human body communication (HBC) has several advantages over traditional wireless communications due to the high conductivity of human body. An accurate body channel model plays a vital role in optimizing the performance and power of HBC transceivers. In this paper, we present a body channel model with three distinct features. First, it takes into account all five body tissue layers resulting better accuracy; second, it adapts to different individuals with the proposed layer thickness estimation technique; third, it counts in the variation of backward coupling capacitance versus different postures. These new features significantly improve the model accuracy. Measurement results show that the proposed model achieves a maximum error of 2.21% in path loss for different human subjects.
Auteurs: Jingna Mao;Huazhong Yang;Yong Lian;Bo Zhao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 303 - 312
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fixture Design Retrieving Method Based on Constrained Maximum Common Subgraph
Résumé:
Fixtures are widely used in almost any modern manufacturing. They add directly to the cost base, impact manufacturing firms' responsiveness and contribute to the overall product quality. Computer-aided intelligent fixture design was developed over the years to give a competitive edge to the manufacturing firms who are facing unprecedented competition and challenges. Among the techniques, case-based reasoning (CBR) method leverages previous design experience and emerged as one of the most popular methods. However, existing CBR methods are more focused on frame work building and less on detailed techniques on case retrieving, which is the central part of any CBR methods. This would inevitably impose negative impact on the overall efficiency of any CBR-based methods. In light of this, this paper presents a new case retrieving method based on a constrained common subgraph technique. This technique tracks down similar cases from a case library through comparing the maximal common subgraphs constrained by meeting fixturing functional requirement. Efficient and robust algorithms have been developed subsequently to implement this technique. The developed method can be highly effective for retrieving cases related to some manufacturing parts with complex geometry. An illustrative example, combined with other key fixture design factors, demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. The presented method is intuitive and can be used in combination with existing CBR methods and well positioned for the upcoming 'big data' manufacturing.
Auteurs: Chen Luo;Xin Wang;Chun Su;Zhonghua Ni;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 692 - 704
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Flexible Two-Way PM-Based Fiber-FSO Convergence System
Résumé:
This paper aims to propose and conduct a practical demonstration of a flexible two-way phase modulation (PM)-based fiber-free-space optical (FSO) convergence system employing one optical carrier transmission scheme and vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based tunable optical band-pass filter (TOBPF). One optical carrier is delivered to efficaciously reduce the dispersion effect caused by a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transportation and the distortion caused by beating among multiple optical sidebands. Using a VCSEL-based TOBPF at the receiving site, the selected optical signal will be acquired flexibly from one of the multiple injected optical signals. This is the first time that an optical carrier transmission scheme and a VCSEL-based TOBPF are used in a two-way PM-based fiber-FSO convergence system. The downstream light is flexibly phase-remodulated with microwave/millimeter-wave data signal for uplink delivery. In-depth observation shows that bit error rate performs brilliantly via a 40-km SMF transportation with a 100-m FSO link. Such a flexible two-way PM-based fiber-FSO convergence system would be very attractive for the integration of fiber backbone and indoor networks to provide data signal flexibly.
Auteurs: Chung-Yi Li;Hai-Han Lu;Wen-Shing Tsai;Xu-Hong Huang;Yun-Chieh Wang;Yong-Nian Chen;You-Ruei Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Frequency- and Pattern-Reconfigurable Two-Element Array Antenna
Résumé:
A frequency- and pattern-reconfigurable two-element array antenna based on a stub-loaded configuration is presented. The frequency-tuning mechanism is implemented using varactor diodes loaded with open stubs. Two independent bias voltages allow to independently add pattern reconfigurability to the array. This is achieved by slightly detuning the resonances of the two patches, thus introducing a beam-steering relative phase difference between them. The design is optimized for a relative frequency tuning range of $text{10}%$ extending from 2.15 to 2.38 GHz, within which it presents a continuously beam-steerable radiation pattern covering scanning angles from $-text{23}^{circ }$ to $+ text{23}^{circ }$ across broadside. An antenna prototype is experimentally characterized, which validates the proposed concept.
Auteurs: Siti Nailah Mastura Zainarry;Nghia Nguyen-Trong;Christophe Fumeaux;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 617 - 620
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fully Integrated Galvanically Isolated DC-DC Converter With Data Communication
Résumé:
This paper presents a fully integrated galvanically isolated dc–dc converter with data communication. The converter, which is fabricated in a 0.35- $mu text{m}$ BCD technology, is made up of only two silicon dice and adopts two 6-kV on-chip transformers. It takes advantage of a customized architecture, which uses the isolated power control link to transfer bidirectional half-duplex data, thus reducing the overall silicon area and package size. The proposed dc–dc converter delivers up to 93-mW output power with 19% maximum power efficiency and an output voltage ranging from 2.4 V to 3.3 V, while achieving a data rate up to 50 Mb/s.
Auteurs: Egidio Ragonese;Nunzio Spina;Alessandro Castorina;Pierpaolo Lombardo;Nunzio Greco;Alessandro Parisi;Giuseppe Palmisano;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1432 - 1441
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fully Integrated Shark-Fin Antenna for MIMO-LTE, GPS, WLAN, and WAVE Applications
Résumé:
In this study, a three-dimensional compact antenna solution for the automotive industry is proposed. The antenna solution is designed to fit in a shark-fin case and is easily fabricated from a printed circuit board and a metal sheet with low-cost process and materials. The antenna solution covers Long Term Evolution (LTE), GPS, WLAN, and Wireless Access in the Vehicular Environment (WAVE) bands (850 MHz, 1575 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.9 GHz, respectively). The planar inverted-F antennas are used as multiple-input–multiple-output antennas for the LTE band due to their low-profile structure. Modified planar monopoles are used to obtain omnidirectional radiation patterns for WLAN and WAVE bands. Antenna characteristics such as return loss, isolation, and radiation pattern have been simulated and measured to confirm the possibility for use in automotive applications.
Auteurs: Oh-Yun Kwon;Reem Song;Byung-Sung Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 600 - 603
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fuzzy Approach for Optimal Robust Control Design of an Automotive Electronic Throttle System
Résumé:
In this paper, we propose a fuzzy approach for optimal robust control design of an automotive electronic throttle (ET) system. Compared with the conventional ET control systems, we establish the fuzzy dynamical model of the ET system with parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities, and external disturbances, which may be nonlinear, (possibly fast) time varying. These uncertainties are assumed to be bounded, and the knowledge of the bound only lies within a prescribed fuzzy set. A robust control that is deterministic and is not the usual if–then rules-based control is presented to guarantee the controlled system to achieve the deterministic performance: uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based system performance index including average fuzzy system performance and control cost is proposed based on the fuzzy information. The optimal design problem associated with the control can then be solved by minimizing the fuzzy-based performance index. With this optimal robust control, the performance of the fuzzy ET system is both deterministically guaranteed and fuzzily optimized.
Auteurs: Hao Sun;Han Zhao;Kang Huang;Mingming Qiu;Shengchao Zhen;Ye-Hwa Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 694 - 704
Editeur: IEEE
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» A G-Band Monolithically Integrated Quasi-Optical Zero-Bias Detector Based on Heterostructure Backward Diodes Using Submicrometer Airbridges
Résumé:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a zero-bias quasi-optical terahertz detector based on monolithically integrated heterostructure backward diodes (HBDs) for operation at G-band. The reported detectors consist of HBDs with $0.7 times 0.7 ~mu text{m}^{2}$ active device area and submicrometer-scale airbridges, integrated with lens-coupled high-impedance planar folded dipole antennas. Measurements of the HBD detector show that a peak-measured detector sensitivity of approximately 2400 V/W and a minimum noise equivalent power (NEPmin) of 2.14 pW/ $surd $ Hz have been obtained at 170 GHz. If an antireflection coating was used on the lens, a sensitivity of approximately 3500 V/W and NEPmin of 1.48 pW/ $surd $ Hz is projected. The radiation patterns of the quasi-optical detector in both $E$ - and $H$ -planes have been measured, and good agreement has been achieved between simulation and measurement. The performance of this detector can be further improved by scaling the HBD device active area. The reported approach using monolithically integrated heterostructure backward tunneling diodes and submicrometer airbridges is promising for developing high performance and compact detectors and focal-plane arrays for millimeter-wave and terahertz sensing and imaging applications.
Auteurs: Syed M. Rahman;Zhenguo Jiang;Md. Itrat B. Shams;Patrick Fay;Lei Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2010 - 2017
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Gaussian-Like Beam Output System for High-Power Ka-Band Gyro-TWT
Résumé:
An output system, consisting of a waveguide taper, a 90° waveguide bend, a corrugated waveguide horn, and an RF output window, which can output a Gaussian-like beam rather than a circular waveguide TE0, 1 mode in a broadband for a Ka-band gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-TWT) has been developed and tested. The conversion process in each section is displayed, and the working principles are discussed in detail. The output mode purity at different frequencies is investigated by analyzing the measured radiation pattern, and the results show that the Gaussian mode contents of the output field is at least 98.5% from 32 to 39 GHz. The high-power performance of the proposed output system is investigated by replacing the traditional output structure of a Ka-band gyro-TWT, and the results show that the device work stable with a maximum power of 150 kW. The obtained Gaussian-like beam at the output window is directly usable for low-loss transmission as well as for effective antenna feed; no extra oversized mode converters are needed. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of developing a compact, high-efficiency, and low-cost high-power millimeter-wave system based on the gyro-TWT.
Auteurs: Zewei Wu;Youlei Pu;Guo Liu;Wei Jiang;Jianxun Wang;Hao Li;Yong Luo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1535 - 1541
Editeur: IEEE
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» A GDSC-Based Technique to Distinguish Transformer Magnetizing From Fault Currents
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel technique to distinguish a transformer magnetization inrush current from a fault current. The proposed scheme is based on the behavior of fundamental and second-harmonic positive- and negative-sequence components. These four components are computed by using generalized delayed signal cancelation (GDSC). After a transient analysis for the GDSC filters, related to the behavior of those four components detection, some features were proposed. These features depict the trajectory change of the most relevant components in the $alpha beta$ plane and their amplitudes for short-circuit discrimination, rather than waiting for filters convergence or waiting one cycle to analyze waveform symmetries. Some features instantly change after an electrical event, making possible a distinction by analyzing a short number of samples. This is the main competitive advantage of the proposed technique. In order to evaluate the proposed method performance, 2200 test cases based on an actual power system were simulated. Also, current-transformer (CT) saturation influence on the technique, computational burden, and embedded implementation were analyzed. In about 95% of the results obtained, the response time of the proposed method was around one fourth of a fundamental cycle.
Auteurs: Ygo Neto Batista;Helber Elias Paz de Souza;Francisco de Assis dos Santos Neves;Roberto Feliciano Dias Filho;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 589 - 599
Editeur: IEEE
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» A General Line–Line Method for Dielectric Material Characterization Using Conductors With the Same Cross-Sectional Geometry
Résumé:
This letter presents a general “line–line” (LL) method for measuring dielectric material’s permittivity using transmission lines. Like the previous LL methods, the proposed method needs a fully characterized transmission line as a reference. Different from previous methods, the reference line can be loaded with an arbitrary material and can be of an arbitrary length. The proposed method is validated with on-wafer dielectric fluid measurement up to 50 GHz, and measurement results of pure water agree well with literature values.
Auteurs: Xiue Bao;Song Liu;Ilja Ocket;Juncheng Bao;Dominique Schreurs;Shengkang Zhang;Chunyue Cheng;Keming Feng;Bart Nauwelaers;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 356 - 358
Editeur: IEEE
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» A General Scheme for the Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Modeling and S-Parameter Extraction of Inhomogeneous Waveports
Résumé:
A general numerical scheme is proposed for the waveport modeling and scattering-parameter (S-parameter) extraction of inhomogeneous waveports with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method. In this scheme, the waveports are truncated with perfectly matched layers with a hybrid mesh automatically extruded from the mesh of the physical device to be simulated. The waveports are then excited by a total-field/scattered-field technique, with which the incident and scattered waves can be obtained for an accurate calculation of the S-parameters. A novel eigenmode solver is also developed to calculate the required modal profiles for the eigenmodes in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous waveports. Special attention is paid to the S-parameter extraction for evanescent modes, which has been a difficult task for time-domain simulations. Numerical examples are given to validate the proposed numerical scheme.
Auteurs: Geng Chen;Lei Zhao;Wenhua Yu;Su Yan;Kedi Zhang;Jian-Ming Jin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1701 - 1712
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Global Bayesian Optimization Algorithm and Its Application to Integrated System Design
Résumé:
Increasing levels of system integration pose difficulties in meeting design specifications for high-performance systems. Oftentimes increased complexity, nonlinearity, and multiple tradeoffs need to be handled simultaneously during the design cycle. Since components in such systems are highly correlated with each other, codesign and co-optimization of the complete system are required. Machine learning (ML) provides opportunities for analyzing such systems with multiple control parameters, where techniques based on Bayesian optimization (BO) can be used to meet or exceed design specifications. In this paper, we propose a new BO-based global optimization algorithm titled Two-Stage BO (TSBO). TSBO can be applied to black box optimization problems where the computational time can be reduced through a reduction in the number of simulations required. Empirical analysis on a set of popular challenge functions with several local extrema and dimensions shows TSBO to have a faster convergence rate as compared with other optimization methods. In this paper, TSBO has been applied for clock skew minimization in 3-D integrated circuits and multiobjective co-optimization for maximizing efficiency in integrated voltage regulators. The results show that TSBO is between $2times $ - $4times $ faster as compared with previously published BO algorithms and other non-ML-based techniques.
Auteurs: Hakki Mert Torun;Madhavan Swaminathan;Anto Kavungal Davis;Mohamed Lamine Faycal Bellaredj;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 792 - 802
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Gm-C Delta-Sigma Modulator With a Merged Input-Feedback Gm Circuit for Nonlinearity Cancellation and Power Efficiency Enhancement
Résumé:
Traditionally, a transconductor-C (Gm-C)-based delta sigma modulator (DSM) has its performance limited by the nonlinearity of its Gm circuits. To achieve sufficient linearity, source degeneration is typically applied to a Gm circuit, which inevitably reduces the Gm circuit’s transconductance and thermal noise efficiencies. This paper presents new ways to change this paradigm. First, a DSM topology that has a passive RC lowpass filter (LPF) in its feedback is applied. We place the cutoff frequency of the LPF at the signal band edge to realize a pole of the DSM’s loop filter, thus reducing the power consumption. The LPF also suppresses the high-frequency components of quantization noise, enabling us to use a nonlinear Gm circuit in the DSM’s feedback while not causing quantization noise to fold into the signal band. With matched transfer characteristics and inputs, the input and feedback Gm circuits have their nonlinearities canceled with each other. Second, a merged input-feedback Gm circuit with shared degeneration resistors is proposed, which has high transconductance and noise efficiencies and simultaneously allows large input and feedback signals. A prototype DSM fabricated in a 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process demonstrates the nonlinearity cancellation and power efficiency of the proposed methods.
Auteurs: Debajit Basak;Daxiang Li;Kong-Pang Pun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1196 - 1209
Editeur: IEEE
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» A GRASP-Based Heuristic for the Sorting by Length-Weighted Inversions Problem
Résumé:
Genome Rearrangements are large-scale mutational events that affect genomes during the evolutionary process. Therefore, these mutations differ from punctual mutations. They can move genes from one place to the other, change the orientation of some genes, or even change the number of chromosomes. In this work, we deal with inversion events which occur when a segment of DNA sequence in the genome is reversed. In our model, each inversion costs the number of elements in the reversed segment. We present a new algorithm for this problem based on the metaheuristic called Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) that has been routinely used to find solutions for combinatorial optimization problems. In essence, we implemented an iterative process in which each iteration receives a feasible solution whose neighborhood is investigated. Our analysis shows that we outperform any other approach by significant margin. We also use our algorithm to build phylogenetic trees for a subset of species in the Yersinia genus and we compared our trees to other results in the literature.
Auteurs: Thiago da Silva Arruda;Ulisses Dias;Zanoni Dias;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 352 - 363
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Guide to Matching Medium-Voltage Drive Topology to Petrochemical Applications
Résumé:
Medium-voltage drives are regularly used in the petrochemical industry. These drives often vary in topology, semiconductor design, and principles of operation. They each have their own merits, not only in terms of structure, design, and reliability, but also with regard to suitability to specific applications. This paper presents a technology overview of commercially available medium-voltage drive topologies with a view on how they match to petrochemical applications. The operating and performance characteristics of each drive topology are reviewed while manufacturer-specific implementation details are excluded. Common industry and application requirements such as harmonics, motor compatibility, regeneration capability, dynamic performance, and robustness to system power disturbances are used as comparison criteria. Application aspects such as commissioning and operation challenges are highlighted from a practical point of view.
Auteurs: Navid R. Zargari;Zhongyuan Cheng;Richard Paes;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1912 - 1920
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Harmonics Elimination Method Using a Three-Winding Transformer for HVDC Transmission Systems
Résumé:
A high-voltage dc (HVdc) transmission system including wind turbine generating systems has been proposed. In the system, the thyristor converter and inverter are used in the same way as in traditional HVdc transmission systems. Hence, the system is suitable for large-scale wind farms and it has high reliability. However, since the traditional HVdc transmission systems generate harmonic currents, a large number of ac filters with capacitors are required. In this paper, a novel harmonics elimination method using a three-winding transformer for the HVdc transmission systems without capacitors is proposed. The theory of the proposed method is discussed and the simulation model of the system is derived first. The method is confirmed through theoretical and experimental investigations to be effective when a static load is connected to the output terminal of the system. It is shown that the proposed method is useful to eliminate harmonic distortions generated at the inverter. Finally, current waveforms and voltage waveforms of the system when a receiving-end grid is connected to the output terminal of the system are discussed.
Auteurs: Ken-ichiro Yamashita;Yoshiki Kameda;Shoji Nishikata;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1645 - 1651
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hierarchical RAID Architecture Towards Fast Recovery and High Reliability
Résumé:
Disk failures are very common in modern storage systems due to the large number of inexpensive disks. As a result, it takes a long time to recover a failed disk due to its large capacity and limited I/O. To speed up the recovery process and maintain a high system reliability, we propose a hierarchical code architecture with erasure codes, OI-RAID, which consists of two layers of codes, outer layer code and inner layer code. Specifically, the outer layer code is deployed with disk grouping technique based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) or complete graph with skewed data layout to provide efficient parallel I/O of all disks for fast failure recovery, and the inner layer code is deployed within each group of disks to provide high reliability. As an example, we deploy RAID5 in both layers to achieve fault tolerance of at least three disk failures, which meets the requirement of data availability in practical systems, as well as much higher speed up ratio for disk failure recovery than existing approaches. Besides, OI-RAID also keeps the optimal data update complexity and incurs low storage overhead in practice.
Auteurs: Yongkun Li;Neng Wang;Chengjin Tian;Si Wu;Yueming Zhang;Yinlong Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 29, issue:4, pages: 734 - 747
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High Energy Efficient Reconfigurable Hybrid Neural Network Processor for Deep Learning Applications
Résumé:
Hybrid neural networks (hybrid-NNs) have been widely used and brought new challenges to NN processors. Thinker is an energy efficient reconfigurable hybrid-NN processor fabricated in 65-nm technology. To achieve high energy efficiency, three optimization techniques are proposed. First, each processing element (PE) supports bit-width adaptive computing to meet various bit-widths of neural layers, which raises computing throughput by 91% and improves energy efficiency by $1.93 times $ on average. Second, PE array supports on-demand array partitioning and reconfiguration for processing different NNs in parallel, which results in 13.7% improvement of PE utilization and improves energy efficiency by $1.11 times $ . Third, a fused data pattern-based multi-bank memory system is designed to exploit data reuse and guarantee parallel data access, which improves computing throughput and energy efficiency by $1.11 times $ and $1.17 times $ , respectively. Measurement results show that this processor achieves 5.09-TOPS/W energy efficiency at most.
Auteurs: Shouyi Yin;Peng Ouyang;Shibin Tang;Fengbin Tu;Xiudong Li;Shixuan Zheng;Tianyi Lu;Jiangyuan Gu;Leibo Liu;Shaojun Wei;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 968 - 982
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Accuracy Programmable Pulse Generator With a 10-ps Timing Resolution
Résumé:
Automatic test equipment must have high-precision and low-power pulse generators (PGs) for testing memory and device-under-test ICs. This paper describes a high-accuracy and wide-data-rate-range PG with a 10-ps time resolution. The PG comprises an edge combiner (EC) and a multiphase clock generator (MPCG). The EC can produce an arbitrary waveform through 32 phase outputs of the MPCG. The EC adopts a one/zero detector and phase selection logic to define an operational data rate range and a timing resolution, respectively. Therefore, the EC uses the phase selection logic to combine the period window of the one/zero detector with the MPCG output phases. The EC also uses a countdown counter for a wide operational range. In the MPCG, a multiphase oscillator (MPO) adopts a ring oscillator scheme with subfeedback loops to extend its maximum operational frequency. The MPO also uses a phase error corrector to reduce the output phase error resulting from process and layout mismatches. Thus, the PG can obtain high-accuracy waveforms owing to small phase errors. The test chip was implemented using a 0.13- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process. The core area and power consumption of the PG were measured to be $250 times 300 ,,mu text{m}^{2}$ and 18.7 mW, respectively. The data rate range of the PG was determined to be from 3.2 kHz to 893 MHz. The time resolution and average accuracy of the PG were measured to be 10 ps and ±0.3 LSB, respectively.
Auteurs: Jen-Chieh Liu;Chao-Jen Huang;Pei-Ying Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 621 - 629
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Sensitivity Potentiometric 65-nm CMOS ISFET Sensor for Rapid E. coli Screening
Résumé:
Foodborne bacteria, inducing outbreaks of infection or poisoning, have posed great threats to food safety. Potentiometric sensors can identify bacteria levels in food by measuring medium's pH changes. However, most of these sensors face the limitation of low sensitivity and high cost. In this paper, we developed a high-sensitivity ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensor. It is small sized, cost-efficient, and can be massively fabricated in a standard 65-nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process. A subthreshold pH-to-time-to-voltage conversion scheme was proposed to improve the sensitivity. Furthermore, design parameters, such as chemical sensing area, transistor size, and discharging time, were optimized to enhance the performance. The intrinsic sensitivity of passivation membrane was calculated as 33.2 mV/pH. It was amplified to 123.8 mV/pH with a 0.01-pH resolution, which greatly exceeded 6.3 mV/pH observed in a traditional source-follower based readout structure. The sensing system was applied to Escherichia coli (E. coli) detection with densities ranging from 14 to 140 cfu/mL. Compared to the conventional direct plate counting method (24 h), more efficient sixfold smaller screening time (4 h) was achieved to differentiate samples’ E. coli levels. The demonstrated portable, time-saving, and low-cost prescreen system has great potential for food safety detection.
Auteurs: Yu Jiang;Xu Liu;Tran Chien Dang;Xiwei Huang;Hao Feng;Qing Zhang;Hao Yu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 402 - 415
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Honeybug for Automated Cyber Reasoning Systems
Résumé:
Automated cyber reasoning systems are susceptible to deceit and manipulation. In the Cyber Grand Challenge, the Rubeus system patched binaries with a honeybug that enticed competitor systems to pursue the honeybug instead of exploiting actual vulnerabilities. Surmising how these automated systems operated, we were able to take advantage of differences from the official scoring system to detect and manipulate their behavior. Methods for detecting and countering automation in the real world may be used to thwart the ability of malicious actors to find vulnerabilities.
Auteurs: Timothy Bryant;Shaun Davenport;
Apparue dans: IEEE Security & Privacy
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 32 - 36
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Joint Framework for QoS and QoE for Video Transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Résumé:
With the emergence of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs), the distribution of multimedia contents have now become a reality. Without proper management, the transmission of multimedia data over WMSNs affects the performance of networks due to excessive packet-drop. The existing studies on Quality of Service (QoS) mostly deal with simple Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and as such do not account for an increasing number of sensor nodes and an increasing volume of data. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to support QoS in WMSNs along with a light-weight Error Concealment (EC) scheme. The EC schemes play a vital role to enhance Quality of Experience (QoE) by maintaining an acceptable quality at the receiving ends. The main objectives of the proposed framework are to maximize the network throughput and to cover-up the effects produced by dropped video packets. To control the data-rate, Scalable High efficiency Video Coding (SHVC) is applied at multimedia sensor nodes with variable Quantization Parameters (QPs). Multi-path routing is exploited to support real-time video transmission. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can efficiently adjust large volumes of video data under certain network distortions and can effectively conceal lost video frames by producing better objective measurements.
Auteurs: Muhammad Usman;Ning Yang;Mian Ahmad Jan;Xiangjian He;Min Xu;Kin-Man Lam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 746 - 759
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Joint Image Registration and Superresolution Method Using a Combinational Continuous Generative Model
Résumé:
In the superresolution (SR) technique, as an inverse problem, the generative model forms low-resolution images from a high-resolution image. This process consists of three principal operations, namely, warping, blurring, and down-sampling. Unlike the traditional SR methods in which a discrete generative model is used, in this paper, a continuous generative model has been proposed for the SR technique. Rather than using a bilinear interpolation for warping operation, we use a Gaussian kernel for interpolation, as it has lower aliasing effect. Within the framework of the proposed continuous generative model, the three principal operations are combined into a unified operation and hence performed simultaneously. According to this combinational operation, a simultaneous image registration and SR method is proposed. Unlike previous simultaneous methods, we neither calculate the Jacobian matrix numerically (to increase the accuracy of calculation) nor derive it treating the three principal operations separately (to reduce the error propagation). We develop a new approach to derive the Jacobian matrix analytically by combining the three principal operations. The results show that our proposed method is more efficient than the recently proposed simultaneous methods.
Auteurs: Hossein Rezayi;Seyed Alireza Seyedin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 834 - 848
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Linear Method for Shape Reconstruction Based on the Generalized Multiple Measurement Vectors Model
Résumé:
In this paper, a novel linear method for shape reconstruction is proposed based on the generalized multiple measurement vectors’ (GMMVs) model. Finite-difference frequency domain is applied to discretize Maxwell’s equations, and the contrast sources are solved iteratively by exploiting the joint sparsity as a regularized constraint. Cross validation technique is used to terminate the iterations, such that the required estimation of the noise level is circumvented. The validity is demonstrated with an excitation of transverse magnetic experimental data, and it is observed that, in the aspect of focusing performance, the GMMV-based linear method outperforms the extensively used linear sampling method.
Auteurs: Shilong Sun;Bert Jan Kooij;Alexander G. Yarovoy;Tian Jin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2016 - 2025
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Linearly Relaxed Approximate Linear Program for Markov Decision Processes
Résumé:
Approximate linear programming (ALP) and its variants have been widely applied to Markov decision processes (MDPs) with a large number of states. A serious limitation of ALP is that it has an intractable number of constraints, as a result of which constraint approximations are of interest. In this paper, we define a linearly relaxed approximation linear program (LRALP) that has a tractable number of constraints, obtained as positive linear combinations of the original constraints of the ALP. The main contribution is a novel performance bound for LRALP.
Auteurs: Chandrashekar Lakshminarayanan;Shalabh Bhatnagar;Csaba Szepesvári;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 1185 - 1191
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Loss-of-Field Detection Relay Based on Rotor Signals Estimation
Résumé:
This paper 1) introduces a new approach for dependable and secure detection of loss-of-field (LOF) events based on estimating rotor signals, 2) implements digital algorithm of the corresponding LOF relay in an industrial hardware platform, and 3) evaluates performance of the LOF relay in a real-time-digital-simulator (RTDS) based control-hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) environment. The main features of the proposed relay as compared with the conventional approaches include 1) capability to discriminate between system disturbances and LOF events, and 2) dependability and higher speed of the LOF detection mechanism. To evaluate the proposed approach performance for various types of LOF events, a detailed excitation system is modeled and implemented in the RTDS-based CHIL environment. This paper also verifies superior performance of the proposed LOF relay as compared with that of a conventional impedance-based LOF relay, using the RTDS-based CHIL platform.
Auteurs: Moein Abedini;Majid Sanaye-Pasand;Mahdi Davarpanah;Reza Iravani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 779 - 788
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low Noise Low Offset Readout Circuit for Magnetic-Random-Access-Memory
Résumé:
A unique readout circuit topology aimed at integration with a novel type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is presented. The properties of the new MRAM bitcell are introduced, and the specifics of the circuit used to interface with the CMOS circuitry are described. The noise transfer function and effectiveness of the proposed topology with its practical limitations are discussed. Post-silicon measurement results verify the validity of this topology. Integration of the proposed readout circuit with the MRAM bitcells is discussed. Measurement results show an integrated input noise of $89~mu $ Vrms, and reliable sensing of signal level of 1 mV.
Auteurs: Anatoli Mordakhay;Yevgeniy Telepinsky;Lior Klein;Joseph Shor;Alexander Fish;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1224 - 1233
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low Phase Noise 210-GHz Triple-Push Ring Oscillator in 90-nm CMOS
Résumé:
In this paper, a 210-GHz triple-push voltage-controlled oscillator consisting of two antiparallel inductor–capacitor ring oscillators with shared inductors is presented. By properly designing the sizes of the ring oscillators and a symmetrical layout, the power of the third harmonic and its phase noise are optimized. A codesign of the inductors, the output combiner, and the pad provides a low-loss signal path at third harmonic and natural filtering at all other harmonics. A prototype of the proposed oscillator is implemented in a 90-nm standard CMOS process. The oscillator achieves a low phase noise of −88 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset and −111.5 dBc/Hz at 10-MHz offset with a peak output power of −6 dBm at 210 GHz. The resulting figure of merit is −179.7 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset and −183.4 dBc/Hz at 10-MHz offset. The oscillator consumes 28.6 mW of dc power from a 1.1-V supply voltage and occupies a compact area of 0.17 mm2 due to the simplicity of the architecture. The oscillator covers a frequency range from 204.3 to 215 GHz.
Auteurs: Cuei-Ling Sunny Hsieh;Jenny Yi-Chun Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1983 - 1997
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Complexity SCMA Detector Based on Discretization
Résumé:
As a new multiple access technique, sparse code multiple access (SCMA) combines quadrature amplitude modulation mapper and spreading together and thus significantly improves spectral efficiency. However, the computation complexity of most existing detection algorithms increases exponentially with $d_{f}$ (the degree of the resource nodes). The parameter $d_{f}$ must be designed to be very small, which largely limits the choice of codebooks. Even if the codebooks are designed to have low density, the detection still takes considerable time. In this paper, a new detection algorithm is proposed by discretizing the probability density functions (PDFs) in the layer nodes. Actually, the PDFs are updated according to the constraints in the factor graph after discretization. Compared with the conventional message passing algorithm (MPA) detector, the proposed detector only takes polynomial time to update one message in resource nodes instead of exponential time with negligible performance loss. In particular, it only needs near-linear time, if the real part is independent with the imaginary part in SCMA system. Furthermore, this paper presents a new design for codebooks by greedy strategy and exhaustive search in each step. The search is feasible with the help of discretization, and the resulting codebooks have good performance in the proposed detection algorithm, as well as in the conventional MPA.
Auteurs: Chenchen Zhang;Yuan Luo;Yan Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 2333 - 2345
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Jitter and Low-Reference-Spur Ring-VCO-Based Switched-Loop Filter PLL Using a Fast Phase-Error Correction Technique
Résumé:
A low-jitter and low-reference-spur ring-type voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based switched-loop filter (SLF) phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented. To enhance the capability of suppressing jitter of a VCO, we propose a fast phase-error correction (FPEC) technique that emulates the phase-realignment mechanism of an injection-locked clock multiplier. By the proposed FPEC technique, accumulated jitter of a VCO can be removed intensively in a short interval, thereby suppressing jitter dramatically. Based on a PLL topology having an intrinsic integrator in a VCO, the proposed architecture can also achieve a low reference spur despite a high multiplication factor (i.e., 64). This paper also presents the selective frequency-tuning technique used in the VCO that helps the proposed architecture further suppress the level of reference spur. The proposed PLL was fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process. The measured rms jitter integrated from 1 kHz to 80 MHz and the reference spur of the output signal with a 3.008-GHz frequency were 357 fs and −71 dBc, respectively. The total active area was 0.047 mm2, and the power consumption was 4.6 mW.
Auteurs: Yongsun Lee;Taeho Seong;Seyeon Yoo;Jaehyouk Choi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 1192 - 1202
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power Current-Reuse Analog Front-End for High-Density Neural Recording Implants
Résumé:
Studying brain activity in vivo requires collecting bioelectrical signals from several microelectrodes simultaneously in order to capture neuron interactions. In this work, we present a new current-reuse analog front-end (AFE), which is scalable to very large numbers of recording channels, thanks to its small implementation silicon area and its low-power consumption. This current-reuse AFE, which is including a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), employs a new fully differential current-mirror topology using fewer transistors, and improving several design parameters, such as power consumption and noise, over previous current-reuse amplifier circuit implementations. We show that the proposed current-reuse amplifier can provide a theoretical noise efficiency factor (NEF) as low as 1.01, which is the lowest reported theoretical NEF provided by an LNA topology. A foue-channel current-reuse AFE implemented in a CMOS 0.18-μm technology is presented as a proof-of-concept. T-network capacitive circuits are used to decrease the size of input capacitors and to increase the gain accuracy in the AFE. The measured performance of the whole AFE is presented. The total power consumption per channel, including the LNA and the PGA stage, is 9 μW (4.5 μW for LNA and 4.5 μW for PGA), for an input referred noise of 3.2 μVrms, achieving a measured NEF of 1.94. The entire AFE presents three selectable gains of 35.04, 43.1, and 49.5 dB, and occupies a die area of 0.072 mm2 per channel. The implemented circuit has a measured inter-channel rejection ratio of 54 dB. In vivo recording results obtained with the proposed AFE are reported. It successfully allows collecting low-amplitude- extracellular action potential signals from a tungsten wire microelectrode implanted in the hippocampus of a laboratory mouse.
Auteurs: Masoud Rezaei;Esmaeel Maghsoudloo;Cyril Bories;Yves De Koninck;Benoit Gosselin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 271 - 280
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power Hybrid Adaptive CORDIC
Résumé:
The purpose of this brief is to introduce a hybrid adaptive coordinate rotation digital computer (HA-CORDIC) implemented on 65-nm silicon on thin buried oxide technology. The supply voltage of HA-CORDIC ranges from 0.25 V to 1.2 V and the lowest energy in active mode and sleep mode are 2.4 pJ/cycle and 0.003 pJ/cycle, respectively. By changing body bias voltages, the leakage current can be reduced to as small as 1.0 nA. Its experimental results proves that HA-CORDIC is potentially a good choice for low-power and high-precision applications in comparison with the previous work.
Auteurs: Hong-Thu Nguyen;Xuan-Thuan Nguyen;Cong-Kha Pham;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 496 - 500
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Machine Learning Framework for Resource Allocation Assisted by Cloud Computing
Résumé:
Conventionally, resource allocation is formulated as an optimization problem and solved online with instantaneous scenario information. Since most resource allocation problems are not convex, the optimal solutions are very difficult to obtain in real time. Lagrangian relaxation or greedy methods are then often employed, which results in performance loss. Therefore, the conventional methods of resource allocation are facing great challenges to meet the ever increasing QoS requirements of users with scarce radio resource. Assisted by cloud computing, a huge amount of historical data on scenarios can be collected for extracting similarities among scenarios using machine learning. Moreover, optimal or near-optimal solutions of historical scenarios can be searched offline and stored in advance. When the measured data of a scenario arrives, the current scenario is compared with historical scenarios to find the most similar one. Then the optimal or near-optimal solution in the most similar historical scenario is adopted to allocate the radio resources for the current scenario. To facilitate the application of new design philosophy, a machine learning framework is proposed for resource allocation assisted by cloud computing. An example of beam allocation in multi-user massive MIMO systems shows that the proposed machine-learning-based resource
Auteurs: Jun-Bo Wang;Junyuan Wang;Yongpeng Wu;Jin-Yuan Wang;Huiling Zhu;Min Lin;Jiangzhou Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 144 - 151
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Magnetic Gearbox With an Active Region Torque Density of 239 N·m/L
Résumé:
In this paper, a 1:4.25 ratio ferrite magnet and Nd-Fe-B magnet flux-focusing magnetic gearbox with a high pole count is analyzed. A simple parameter sweep analysis is used to show that higher than previously published torque density values are achievable. Experimental results are then presented for the Nd-Fe-B design that confirm the calculations and also demonstrate that the proposed magnetic gearbox can operate with a low torque ripple.
Auteurs: Kiran K. Uppalapati;Matthew D. Calvin;Jason D. Wright;J. Pitchard;Wesley B. Williams;Jonathan Z. Bird;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1331 - 1338
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Measure-Theoretic Foundation for Data Quality
Résumé:
In this paper, a novel framework for data quality measurement is proposed by adopting a measure-theoretic treatment of the problem. Instead of considering a specific setting in which quality must be assessed, our approach departs more formally from the concept of measurement. The basic assumption of the framework is that the highest possible quality can be described by means of a set of predicates. Quality of data is then measured by evaluating those predicates and by combining their evaluations. This combination is based on a capacity function (i.e., a fuzzy measure) that models for each combination of predicates the capacity with respect to the quality of the data. It is shown that expression of quality on an ordinal scale entails a high degree of interpretation and a compact representation of the measurement function. Within this purely ordinal framework for measurement, it is shown that reasoning about quality beyond the ordinal level naturally originates from the uncertainty about predicate evaluation. It is discussed how the proposed framework is positioned with respect to other approaches with particular attention to aggregation of measurements. The practical usability of the framework is discussed for several well known dimensions of data quality and demonstrated in a use-case study about clinical trials.
Auteurs: Antoon Bronselaer;Robin De Mol;Guy De Tré;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 627 - 639
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Mechanically Reconfigurable Reflectarray With Slotted Patches of Tunable Height
Résumé:
Design of a C-band reconfigurable reflectarray antenna (RRA) is presented. The RRA element consists of a fixed upper patch and a tunable slotted patch. By mechanically controlling the height of the slotted patch, the RRA element has a phase shift range of 324° with small element loss. A prototype with 408 elements is designed and fabricated. The measurements show that the gain of the 20° scanned beam is 25.7 dB and the aperture efficiency is 48.6%. The large-angle beam-scanning capability of the RRA is also verified within ±60° angular range, and well-defined scanned beams are obtained with maximum scan gain loss of 3.4 dB.
Auteurs: Xue Yang;Shenheng Xu;Fan Yang;Maokun Li;Houfei Fang;Yangqing Hou;Shuidong Jiang;Lei Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 555 - 558
Editeur: IEEE
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» A MEMS Actuator System for an Integrated 3-D Optical Coherent Tomography Scanner
Résumé:
In this paper, we present an electrothermal biaxial MEMS actuator system, which provides $x$ - and $y$ -direction scanning for a fully integrated 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanner. An angular scanning range of 8° (corresponding to a 7-mm linear scanning range in both directions) is achieved, with an average power consumption of 150 mW. The resonant frequency is 668 and 297 Hz for x- and y-directions, respectively. With a footprint of only $2.5times2.5$ mm2, this system is part of a device which also integrates an optical waveguide and a collimated lens on the same chip, thus making the fully integrated, self-aligned, and miniaturized 3-D OCT scanners feasible. [2017-0268]
Auteurs: Aleksandar Jovic;Grégory Pandraud;Nuria Sanchez Losilla;Juan Sancho;Kirill Zinoviev;Jose Luis Rubio;Eduaro Margallo-Ballbas;Pasqualina M. Sarro;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 259 - 268
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Metamorphosed Roadway: Dual-Band Variable-Attenuation Notch Filters
Résumé:
The needs of multiband communication continue to grow, leading to an increase in the number of RF bands. Therefore, to meet system requirements for efficient operation in a compact size, as well as develop multifunction applications, reconfigurable and miniaturized filters using a single signal path are essential.
Auteurs: Zhixian Deng;Zhen Tian;Huizhen Jenny Qian;Xun Luo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 70 - 76
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method for the Suppression of Multiple Spurious Modes
Résumé:
This paper reports on a novel electrode design technique for spur suppression in parallel-plate piezoelectric resonators with minimal impact on the intended vibration mode. To demonstrate this technique, fabricated two-port resonators were designed to optimally excite the first harmonic of length extension in a lead zirconate titanate-on-silicon resonator and suppress chosen higher harmonics. The targeted harmonics have been largely suppressed, while the intended mode experienced no change in magnitude. This is the first step towards a general technique for suppression of an arbitrary mode. [2017–0251]
Auteurs: Jonathan M. Puder;Jeffrey S. Pulskamp;Ryan Q. Rudy;Ronald G. Polcawich;Sunil A. Bhave;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 269 - 275
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method of Repeat Photoclinometry for Detecting Kilometer-Scale Ice Sheet Surface Evolution
Résumé:
Small-scale glaciological processes can drive large-scale ice sheet behavior but remain underreported due to a paucity of surface elevation measurements in remote polar regions. Satellite images provide a relatively long record of spatially dense surface observations, which allow us to investigate changes in ice sheet topography on the spatial scales of 1–10 km. Inferring surface topography from satellite images is an established technique, but in previous efforts, strict requirements for illumination conditions and image quality have led to a great quantity of discarded data. Relaxing quality requirements and fitting linear trends to the time series of image-derived surface topography allow inclusion of more total signal and enable blending data from multiple platforms. As a proof of concept, we combine 121 MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer images to develop a 250-m resolution map of surface elevation change at Totten Glacier, Antarctica achieving a 1- $sigma $ uncertainty of 0.22 $textrm {m},textrm {a}^{-1}$ for a 15-year period. Our method of repeat photoclinometry agrees with repeat laser altimetry while revealing clear patterns of surface elevation change associated with ice advection, channelized ice shelf basal melt, subglacial lake activity, and possible grounding line migration.
Auteurs: Chad A. Greene;Donald D. Blankenship;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 56, issue:4, pages: 2074 - 2082
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method of Suppressing Higher Order Modes for Improving Radiation Performance of Metasurface Multiport Antennas Using Characteristic Mode Analysis
Résumé:
A method is proposed to suppress the unwanted higher order modes (HOMs) of the metasurfaces in multiport antenna systems for improving the radiation performances using characteristic mode analysis (CMA). The proposed method is to control the modal currents under consideration by loading the unit cells of the metasurface with slots and vias. The positions of loads are determined with the aid of CMA of the metasurface. For proof of concept, the proposed technique is applied to a compact wideband four metasurface antenna (MA) systems operating at 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands. With the suppression of HOMs, the split and tilted radiation patterns of the MAs are significantly improved. The concept is experimentally validated for potential compact multiport antenna applications.
Auteurs: Feng Han Lin;Zhi Ning Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 04.-2018, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 1894 - 1902
Editeur: IEEE
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